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"Fair is foul and foul is fair" are the famous words Shakespeare said about the three witches in the opening scene of "Macbeth". Darkness, thunder and lightning, a desert location, and her three witches tell us in a few short lines in a strange, otherworldly rhythm what awaits us in this play. . And the bad ones are fair); The fog they produce obscures visibility and polluted air replaces the freshness and brightness of Scottish air.

At the end of the opening scene, the witch's creed confession is shown.

"Just is evil, and evil is just." Its application applies to both the physical and moral worlds. They turn everything upside down and indulge in all manner of mischief, from killing pigs to capturing and corrupting human souls. Macbeth is the victim of this calamity as his soul is eventually trapped and destroyed.

When Duncan arrives at Glamis Castle to stay the night with Macbeth he is entering a place made to resemble hell with Lady Macbeth's invocation of evil:

“…Come thick night;/ And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell,/That my keen knife sees not the wound it makes,/Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark …” As Duncan arrives at the castle gates he says:

“This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air/Nibly and sweetly recommends itself/Unto our gentle senses.” A member of his party says:

“… heaven's breath smells wooingly here.”

They are entering the gates of Hell, though, and that pleasant air is about to change to fog and filthy air. Murder awaits Duncan as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth plan their regicide. Later, after the murder, when Macduff comes to take Duncan hunting, the porter at the gate has a small comic scene in which he pretends to be the keeper of the gates of Hell before opening them to Macduff, who discovers a scene of evil and confusion.

A study of the main character in the play reveals him to be one of the most interesting and remarkably drawn of all Shakespeare's characters. Macbeth is slowly transformed from a thoroughly good man into pure evil, described by Macduff as a hell kite, and referred to as “bloody,” “butcher,” “tyrant,” etc. When we first meet him he is a huge celebrity, very popular all over the country and trusted by the king after proving his loyalty by putting down rebellions and killing rebels. Seduced by a witch, he conceives the idea of ​​becoming king, but Lady Macbeth assures him that it cannot be realized without killing the king. From that moment on we see a descent into pure evil as he presides over a reign of terror, seeing one of his killers actually brutally kill a child on stage. In contrast to the darkness, filthy air, and foggy imagery surrounding Macbeth, it just keeps falling until that image is overcome by the forces associated in the play with angels, heaven, and light. Be lazy, lazy people were once beautiful. After Macbeth's defeat at the hands of the decapitated Macduff, the order is restored and the witches' hold over the country diminishes. A foul is now fair.

There are many quotes throughout the play that contrasts good and evil, and this ties in with the "fair are foul" and "foul is fair" motifs. Some are included:

Let not light see my black and deep desires. (act 1, scene 4)

Look like the innocent flower but be the serpent under it. (act 1, scene 5)

I go and it is done: the bell invites me.

Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell

That summons thee to heaven or to hell (act 2, scene 1)

There are daggers in men’s smiles. (act 2, scene 3)


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