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The invitation to the 'Bridge Party' causes a lot of excitement among the Indians. But the 'Bridge Party' proves that there can be no bridge or communication between the Anglo-Indians and the Native Indians so long as the English persist in their blind arrogance. On arriving at the club, Mrs. Moore and Adela, find that the Indian guests have arrived even earlier and are standing in a group timidly at a corner of the lawn, doing nothing. The Britishers, on their part, show themselves as a self-contained group, keeping their distance from the Indians whom they refuse to take note of. They have invited the Indians to a party but they are indifferent to them.

However, to begin with the proceedings, the Collector and his wife, as sort of formality, decide to go over to where the Indians are gathered in a group. Urged by her husband to go to the Indian women, the Collector's wife reluctantly takes Mrs. Moore and Adela across the lawn to introduce them to the Indian women. She reminds them that they are superior to any of the women they meet. When she reaches the gathering of Indian women she goes up to them and welcomes them in the rough Urdu that she uses to talk to her servants. Only Mrs. Moore, and Adela (and Fielding on men's side) make genuine efforts to meet and talk to the Indians in a gentle way. 

Mrs. Moore who is courteous, tries to speak as informally as possible. But in this the two British women meet with little or no success.Mrs. Moore and Adela realise that the British women, in their attitude to the Indians, are worse. Social intimacy with the Indian women is unthinkable to them. They make no effort at all to understand Indian customs and conventions.

Thus the 'Bridge Party' completely fails to bridge the gap between the English and the Indians. The Indians are socially constrained and the English are arrogant. Mrs. Moore and Adela do their best to meet the Indians, despite Mrs. Turton's disdain and the Principal of the Government College, Mr. Fielding, pleased with the visitors attempts at sociability, invites the ladies to a tea to meet some Indians. Adela has a depressing vision of what her life would be as the wife of an Anglo-Indian official.

In what way does the 'Bridge Party' fail to bridge the gap between the English and the Indians?

Green Land | July 09, 2020 | 0 comments
When Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested arrive in Chandrapore, they express their desire to meet the Indians socially and get to know them personally. That is, they want to 'see the real India'. The British Collector Mr.Turton agrees to fulfil their desire and accordingly offers a 'Bridge Party' in the garden of the British club. All the prominent local Indians are invited. The purpose of this 'Bridge Party' is to bridge the gap between the peoples of two races, the English and the Indians.
Bridge Party

The invitation to the 'Bridge Party' causes a lot of excitement among the Indians. But the 'Bridge Party' proves that there can be no bridge or communication between the Anglo-Indians and the Native Indians so long as the English persist in their blind arrogance. On arriving at the club, Mrs. Moore and Adela, find that the Indian guests have arrived even earlier and are standing in a group timidly at a corner of the lawn, doing nothing. The Britishers, on their part, show themselves as a self-contained group, keeping their distance from the Indians whom they refuse to take note of. They have invited the Indians to a party but they are indifferent to them.

However, to begin with the proceedings, the Collector and his wife, as sort of formality, decide to go over to where the Indians are gathered in a group. Urged by her husband to go to the Indian women, the Collector's wife reluctantly takes Mrs. Moore and Adela across the lawn to introduce them to the Indian women. She reminds them that they are superior to any of the women they meet. When she reaches the gathering of Indian women she goes up to them and welcomes them in the rough Urdu that she uses to talk to her servants. Only Mrs. Moore, and Adela (and Fielding on men's side) make genuine efforts to meet and talk to the Indians in a gentle way. 

Mrs. Moore who is courteous, tries to speak as informally as possible. But in this the two British women meet with little or no success.Mrs. Moore and Adela realise that the British women, in their attitude to the Indians, are worse. Social intimacy with the Indian women is unthinkable to them. They make no effort at all to understand Indian customs and conventions.

Thus the 'Bridge Party' completely fails to bridge the gap between the English and the Indians. The Indians are socially constrained and the English are arrogant. Mrs. Moore and Adela do their best to meet the Indians, despite Mrs. Turton's disdain and the Principal of the Government College, Mr. Fielding, pleased with the visitors attempts at sociability, invites the ladies to a tea to meet some Indians. Adela has a depressing vision of what her life would be as the wife of an Anglo-Indian official.
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Symbolic significance of the 'Temple' in A Passage to India


The "Temple', the last section of A Passage to India contains the essence of the novel, love, harmony and happiness. It shows symbolically the final triumph of the Hindu Temple over the pre-Hindu Caves of Marabar. If the caves stand for the failure of mutual friendship in the face of chaos, the temple festival is a living symbol of unity in love, of coming together of different people, even former enemies in a spirit of reconciliation. Forster has been able to invest this larger meaning to the temple because of the symbolic importance of four crucial scenes of the last section:

i) the scene of the birth of Lord Krishna and of Godbole's vision, 

ii) the scene in which the mystical influence of Mrs. Moore brings Aziz and Ralph Moore together, 

iii) the scene of the collision of the boats in which Aziz and Fielding meet again, and 

iv) the last ride together of Aziz and Fielding.

The last section of the novel takes place in the town of Mau which is celebrating Gokulashtami-a ceremony in which the worshippers, including Godbole, try to " love all men, the whole universe " and in which " the Lord of the Universe " is born. It is two hundred miles away from the evil Caves of Marabar, and it is the cool season which is propitious for harmony and peace, and the Hindu Brahmin Godbole is presiding over the ceremony of Lord Krishna's birth.Clearly we have escaped in space and time from the Marabar hills and all that they symbolize, and we are now promised intimations of perfect harmony and reconciliation. While presiding over the ceremony, Golbole,who stands for the Union in reality of all men, sees in a vision Mrs. Moore united in his mind with a wasp, and thus achieves Union with the divine. In his worship he makes no fixed exclusion; everything is a part of the universe which itself is embraced by divine love. The Hindu Festival is thus a symbol of a reconciliation of differences not in negation, but in a larger synthesis.

In the next scene, Aziz takes Ralph Moore on the water to show him the last stage in the ceremony of Mau. He does not know that Fielding and his wife, Stella, are in another boat nearby. The four persons are so absorbed in enjoying the ceremony that they do not notice the raft, bearing the clay god, which comes and crashes into the boats. The two boat collide with the raft, and everything and everyone including the clay god, are plunged into water. This is a form of spiritual baptism a form of purification, dissolving all misunderstandings and bitterness in a final reconciliation. Both Aziz and Fielding come closer again.

Thus the divine muddle of the Hindu ceremony has brought these former friends,, Aziz and Fielding, together again, yet their friendship like the unity of India, is unstable.

To conclude, the festival of Sri Krishna's birth with which begins the last section 'The Temple' of the novel, indicates that it is possible to encompass the order which lies beyond chaos. The festival is a symbol of the unity in love, of the coming together of enemies in a spirit of reconciliation.

What is the symbolic significance of the 'Temple' in A Passage to India?

Green Land | July 09, 2020 | 0 comments

Symbolic significance of the 'Temple' in A Passage to India


The "Temple', the last section of A Passage to India contains the essence of the novel, love, harmony and happiness. It shows symbolically the final triumph of the Hindu Temple over the pre-Hindu Caves of Marabar. If the caves stand for the failure of mutual friendship in the face of chaos, the temple festival is a living symbol of unity in love, of coming together of different people, even former enemies in a spirit of reconciliation. Forster has been able to invest this larger meaning to the temple because of the symbolic importance of four crucial scenes of the last section:

i) the scene of the birth of Lord Krishna and of Godbole's vision, 

ii) the scene in which the mystical influence of Mrs. Moore brings Aziz and Ralph Moore together, 

iii) the scene of the collision of the boats in which Aziz and Fielding meet again, and 

iv) the last ride together of Aziz and Fielding.

The last section of the novel takes place in the town of Mau which is celebrating Gokulashtami-a ceremony in which the worshippers, including Godbole, try to " love all men, the whole universe " and in which " the Lord of the Universe " is born. It is two hundred miles away from the evil Caves of Marabar, and it is the cool season which is propitious for harmony and peace, and the Hindu Brahmin Godbole is presiding over the ceremony of Lord Krishna's birth.Clearly we have escaped in space and time from the Marabar hills and all that they symbolize, and we are now promised intimations of perfect harmony and reconciliation. While presiding over the ceremony, Golbole,who stands for the Union in reality of all men, sees in a vision Mrs. Moore united in his mind with a wasp, and thus achieves Union with the divine. In his worship he makes no fixed exclusion; everything is a part of the universe which itself is embraced by divine love. The Hindu Festival is thus a symbol of a reconciliation of differences not in negation, but in a larger synthesis.
symbolic significance of the 'Temple' in A Passage to India

In the next scene, Aziz takes Ralph Moore on the water to show him the last stage in the ceremony of Mau. He does not know that Fielding and his wife, Stella, are in another boat nearby. The four persons are so absorbed in enjoying the ceremony that they do not notice the raft, bearing the clay god, which comes and crashes into the boats. The two boat collide with the raft, and everything and everyone including the clay god, are plunged into water. This is a form of spiritual baptism a form of purification, dissolving all misunderstandings and bitterness in a final reconciliation. Both Aziz and Fielding come closer again.

Thus the divine muddle of the Hindu ceremony has brought these former friends,, Aziz and Fielding, together again, yet their friendship like the unity of India, is unstable.

To conclude, the festival of Sri Krishna's birth with which begins the last section 'The Temple' of the novel, indicates that it is possible to encompass the order which lies beyond chaos. The festival is a symbol of the unity in love, of the coming together of enemies in a spirit of reconciliation.
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The day of the trial is very hot. The hearing of the case begins. The English community escorted Adela to the courtroom. During trial the English are certain of victory, even with an Indian presiding over the case. As Adela enters the courtroom, the first person she notices in the crowd is the man who pulls the Punkha-an untouchable but so splendid in appearance that he looks like a god as he majestically pulls the rope. The Punkhawallah cannot understand what is happening around him and somehow in his dignity impresses the girl from middle-class England. She feels how wrong it is to impose her care upon others.

The Police Superintendent, Mr. McBryde opens the case for the prosecution. Meanwhile, due to her indisposition, Adela is allowed to sit on z chair on the platform. All other Englishmen also go up and sit on the platform, behaving as if they have taken charge of the trial. The defence counsels, Mahmoud Ali and Amrit Rao object to the sitting of the Europeans on the platforms. Mr. Das, the Hindu judge at the trial agree and orders all the Europeans, except Adela, to return to their place, leaving the platform. The Indians are happy at the humiliation of the English.

McBryde in his speech alleges that Aziz has even tried to have Mrs. Moore killed in one of the caves so that he could be alone with Miss Adela Quested to avail himself of the opportunity for his crime. This creates an uproar and the defence lawyer, Mahmoud Ali shrieks whether Aziz is charged with attempted murder as well as rape. He accuses the English community of smuggling Mrs. Moore out of the country as she could have provide Aziz's innocence. Mr. Dad rules out the objection and disapproves the mentioning of Mrs. Moore's name as she has not been cited as a witness by either of the sides. Mrs. Moore's name is taken up by the crowd outside. It is Indianised into "Esmiss Esmoore" and is being chanted even by people who do not know what it is. 

Even when the chant of the crowd outside stops, the mysterious influence of Mrs. Moore remains in the courtroom. It seems Adela's mind is working under the strange spell of Mrs. Moore's name.With a calm acceptance of the caves, Adela now realizes that nothing "in reality" had happened to her in the Marabar Caves. It was just an echo. So she now carefully answers each question which McBride puts to her. Adela answers that Dr.Aziz had never followed her into the cave and that she had made a mistake about Aziz. Then Aziz is declared innocent and released with honour from jail. The court breaks up amidst shouts.

To sum up, the description of the trial scene is made in a masterly manner. It is actually a satire on the English judicial system in India. The Englishmen could not forget even in the court that they were the rulers.

In what sense is Aziz's trial a satire on the English judicial system in India?

Green Land | July 08, 2020 | 0 comments
The whole city of Chandrapore is seething with discontent against the English, because of Aziz's trial. All the people of the city, the Hindus and the Muslims alike think that Aziz has unjustly been implicated. A barrister from Calcutta, Mr. Amrit Rao, has been engaged to defend Aziz. The Nawab Bahadur has undertaken to pay all the expenses for the defence. All the Englishmen except Fielding, not to speak of the English ladies, are convinced of Aziz's guilt and insist that the culprit be punished.
Aziz's trial a satire on the English judicial system

The day of the trial is very hot. The hearing of the case begins. The English community escorted Adela to the courtroom. During trial the English are certain of victory, even with an Indian presiding over the case. As Adela enters the courtroom, the first person she notices in the crowd is the man who pulls the Punkha-an untouchable but so splendid in appearance that he looks like a god as he majestically pulls the rope. The Punkhawallah cannot understand what is happening around him and somehow in his dignity impresses the girl from middle-class England. She feels how wrong it is to impose her care upon others.

The Police Superintendent, Mr. McBryde opens the case for the prosecution. Meanwhile, due to her indisposition, Adela is allowed to sit on z chair on the platform. All other Englishmen also go up and sit on the platform, behaving as if they have taken charge of the trial. The defence counsels, Mahmoud Ali and Amrit Rao object to the sitting of the Europeans on the platforms. Mr. Das, the Hindu judge at the trial agree and orders all the Europeans, except Adela, to return to their place, leaving the platform. The Indians are happy at the humiliation of the English.

McBryde in his speech alleges that Aziz has even tried to have Mrs. Moore killed in one of the caves so that he could be alone with Miss Adela Quested to avail himself of the opportunity for his crime. This creates an uproar and the defence lawyer, Mahmoud Ali shrieks whether Aziz is charged with attempted murder as well as rape. He accuses the English community of smuggling Mrs. Moore out of the country as she could have provide Aziz's innocence. Mr. Dad rules out the objection and disapproves the mentioning of Mrs. Moore's name as she has not been cited as a witness by either of the sides. Mrs. Moore's name is taken up by the crowd outside. It is Indianised into "Esmiss Esmoore" and is being chanted even by people who do not know what it is. 

Even when the chant of the crowd outside stops, the mysterious influence of Mrs. Moore remains in the courtroom. It seems Adela's mind is working under the strange spell of Mrs. Moore's name.With a calm acceptance of the caves, Adela now realizes that nothing "in reality" had happened to her in the Marabar Caves. It was just an echo. So she now carefully answers each question which McBride puts to her. Adela answers that Dr.Aziz had never followed her into the cave and that she had made a mistake about Aziz. Then Aziz is declared innocent and released with honour from jail. The court breaks up amidst shouts.

To sum up, the description of the trial scene is made in a masterly manner. It is actually a satire on the English judicial system in India. The Englishmen could not forget even in the court that they were the rulers.
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Friendship Between Dr. Aziz and Mrs. Moore  


The meeting between Dr. Aziz and Mrs. Moore at the Mosque is the most important scene of Part I of the novel, A Passage to India. It defines the preoccupation of the first section and has important and lasting consequences for the whole story. In the scene, two widely different human beings come together, and through "the secret understanding of the heart" establish a friendship which in spite of everything that happens to negate it, lasts long enough to serve as a standard to the other relationship in novel.

Symbolic significant of Mosque  


This understanding of the heart is the dominant urge that expresses the most general meaning of the Mosque symbol in the novel. The Mosque with its serene beauty, its combination of light and shade, represents a belief in the oneness of God, oneness of India, and, therefore, comes to symbolize friendship and understanding between people of different races and cultures.

Aziz, the Muslim doctor, enters the mosque to get the peace and happiness denied to him in the Anglo-Indian world. Mrs. Moore, the elderly English woman has just escaped from the British Club, bored by its state entertainments and has come to the mosque to seek relief from the heat and sultriness of the club. Thus, both of them have entered the mosque to seek shelter from the oppressive surroundings. Mrs. Moore is a kindly old woman who wants to "see the real India". She is full of sympathy and love towards the Indians. She is different from her fellow Britishers who consider Indians belonging to an inferior race. Doctor Aziz who has been feeling hurt and miserable by the behaviour of two English ladies, is soothed by the understanding that Mrs. Moore shows towards him.

As they start talking of their children, of other people of India and religion, Aziz slowly becomes aware of the fact that here is no ordinary British visitor but an exceptionally kind woman whose broad sympathies cut across barriers of race and age. Mrs. Moore on her part, finds that Aziz is a warm and sensitive human being who, it seems to her, stands for the goodness and meaning of life she wishes to find in India. Thus, a young Indian and an old British woman meet in a mosque and reach an instinctive understanding about each other which is never afterwards broken.

What is the symbolic significance of the 'Mosque' in A Passage to India?

Green Land | July 08, 2020 | 0 comments

Friendship Between Dr. Aziz and Mrs. Moore  


The meeting between Dr. Aziz and Mrs. Moore at the Mosque is the most important scene of Part I of the novel, A Passage to India. It defines the preoccupation of the first section and has important and lasting consequences for the whole story. In the scene, two widely different human beings come together, and through "the secret understanding of the heart" establish a friendship which in spite of everything that happens to negate it, lasts long enough to serve as a standard to the other relationship in novel.

Symbolic significant of Mosque  


This understanding of the heart is the dominant urge that expresses the most general meaning of the Mosque symbol in the novel. The Mosque with its serene beauty, its combination of light and shade, represents a belief in the oneness of God, oneness of India, and, therefore, comes to symbolize friendship and understanding between people of different races and cultures.

Aziz, the Muslim doctor, enters the mosque to get the peace and happiness denied to him in the Anglo-Indian world. Mrs. Moore, the elderly English woman has just escaped from the British Club, bored by its state entertainments and has come to the mosque to seek relief from the heat and sultriness of the club. Thus, both of them have entered the mosque to seek shelter from the oppressive surroundings. Mrs. Moore is a kindly old woman who wants to "see the real India". She is full of sympathy and love towards the Indians. She is different from her fellow Britishers who consider Indians belonging to an inferior race. Doctor Aziz who has been feeling hurt and miserable by the behaviour of two English ladies, is soothed by the understanding that Mrs. Moore shows towards him.

As they start talking of their children, of other people of India and religion, Aziz slowly becomes aware of the fact that here is no ordinary British visitor but an exceptionally kind woman whose broad sympathies cut across barriers of race and age. Mrs. Moore on her part, finds that Aziz is a warm and sensitive human being who, it seems to her, stands for the goodness and meaning of life she wishes to find in India. Thus, a young Indian and an old British woman meet in a mosque and reach an instinctive understanding about each other which is never afterwards broken.

To sum up, the crucial importance of the mosque scene is suggested by the fact that the 'Mosque' is the title of the first section, and therefore, a symbolic expression which defines the meaning for entire section. This mosque scene foreshadows other successful relationship achieved between Aziz and Fielding. This relationship again strengthens the possibility of human affection as one of the positive themes in the complex symphony of Affiliation, Negation and Reaffirmation that we fine in the novel as a whole.
Symbolic significant of Mosque
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E.M. Forster has nicely displays the difference between the Hindus and the Muslims. He observes that even though the Hindus and the Muslims suffer under the yoke of slavery under the British rule, they cannot assembly on the same platform. Both of them want independence but they differ on the question of succession. Aziz wants his Afghan ancestors to conquer and rule India. To be more liberal, he wants an assemblage of original statesmen to solve the tangle. Dr. Aziz wishes that the Hindus do not remind him of cow dung. Mr. Das, the Magistrate thinks some of the Muslims to be very violent.

Mr. Bhattacharya fails to send his carriage to carry Mrs. Moore and Miss Adela Quested. Aziz criticises them severely by saying that the Hindus are untrustworthy and dirty. He feels that the Bhattacharyas have not sent the carriage because they do not want the English ladies to see their dirty house. All Hindus are dirty and the source of infection. Godbole, though he is a professor of philosophy, cannot see anyone eating beef because of his superstitions mind. Such are the insurmountable fundamental differences between the two sections of Indian community.

But Aziz's victory at the trial court brought about the Hindus and the Muslims closer to each other, although there are differences between the races. The trial accomplishes nothing as far as the Anglo-Indian problem is concerned, except to deepen the ill-feeling between the races, but it certainly brings about at least a temporary and local tolerance between the Muslims and the Hindus. Mr.Das, the magistrate, at the trial, pays s visit to Dr. Aziz. He requests him for two things-remedy for shingles and a poe for his brother-in-law's magazine. Aziz promises both.

However, it cannot be said that various sections of the Indians know much about each other to be able to overcome their mutual suspicions. In spite of their desire to come together both the Hindu and the Muslim communities stuck to their estimates and opinions of each other.

Comment on Forster's treatment of Hindu-Muslim relationship in A Passage to India?

Green Land | July 08, 2020 | 0 comments
Chandrapore, the setting of A Passage to India represents India of the British regime. There is no harmony-religious, political or social, between the communities living at Chandrapore city. The Englishman and women look upon the Indians as belonging to an inferior race. The Indians dislike the English for ruling over them with force. The Muslims and the Hindus are also living in an atmosphere of mutual distrust and misunderstanding. The Muslims consider themselves superior to the Hindus over whom their forefathers had ruled for two hundred years or more. But the trial of Dr. Aziz at the court by Britishers brought the Hindus and the Muslims of Chandrapore in closer relation.
Forster's treatment of Hindu-Muslim relationship

E.M. Forster has nicely displays the difference between the Hindus and the Muslims. He observes that even though the Hindus and the Muslims suffer under the yoke of slavery under the British rule, they cannot assembly on the same platform. Both of them want independence but they differ on the question of succession. Aziz wants his Afghan ancestors to conquer and rule India. To be more liberal, he wants an assemblage of original statesmen to solve the tangle. Dr. Aziz wishes that the Hindus do not remind him of cow dung. Mr. Das, the Magistrate thinks some of the Muslims to be very violent.

Mr. Bhattacharya fails to send his carriage to carry Mrs. Moore and Miss Adela Quested. Aziz criticises them severely by saying that the Hindus are untrustworthy and dirty. He feels that the Bhattacharyas have not sent the carriage because they do not want the English ladies to see their dirty house. All Hindus are dirty and the source of infection. Godbole, though he is a professor of philosophy, cannot see anyone eating beef because of his superstitions mind. Such are the insurmountable fundamental differences between the two sections of Indian community.

But Aziz's victory at the trial court brought about the Hindus and the Muslims closer to each other, although there are differences between the races. The trial accomplishes nothing as far as the Anglo-Indian problem is concerned, except to deepen the ill-feeling between the races, but it certainly brings about at least a temporary and local tolerance between the Muslims and the Hindus. Mr.Das, the magistrate, at the trial, pays s visit to Dr. Aziz. He requests him for two things-remedy for shingles and a poe for his brother-in-law's magazine. Aziz promises both.

However, it cannot be said that various sections of the Indians know much about each other to be able to overcome their mutual suspicions. In spite of their desire to come together both the Hindu and the Muslim communities stuck to their estimates and opinions of each other.
readmore

We see in the very first chapter of the novel that Chandrapore is two towns, the English civil station and the native section, the one having nothing to do with the other. The civil station "shares nothing with the city except the over arching sky". This division in the landscape is symptomatic of the wide gulf that separates the rulers from the ruled. Forster thinks that it is not possible for an Indian to be a friend of an Englishman as long as the English remain unfeeling, proud and automatic towards the Indians. In their dealings with the Indians, the British as a class, operate only at the level of political and social duty.

Thus the ruling Anglo-Indians think of their rule as a burden nobly borne by them in order to civilize the native barbarians. This imperialistic prejudice produces a rigid system in which humanity has been harshly divided into the whites and the coloured. The Anglo-Indians act as a herd, united in their vicious contempt and hatred for the native Indians, whom they despise as belonging to an inferior race. They have built round themselves a rigid barrier of conventions, rank, and position, and feeling. Safe and superior behind this fence of conventions, they look down upon the Indians outside with contempt and disdain. Fearful of the primitive Indians outside, they always feel the need of sticking together, of keeping in step with others in order not to fall behind the herd.

The most frightening expression of this herd-felling is, of course, visible, when the largest numbers of them are gathered together in their club at the Bridge Party, arranged in honour of the new comers, Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested. Some of the distinguished Indians are also invited to the party to bridge the gulf between the British and the Indians. But the Anglo-Indians as a group are simply not interested in their talking to the Indians, they themselves have invited. As a result, the Indians who attend the party on goodwill, feel extremely humiliated.

This mass-hysteria of the Anglo-Indians may also be seen in the trial scene. Their collective concern in the trial scene, is not justice for Adela, but to achieve the utmost humiliation of the Indians. Forster shows how their mass-hysteria can, on critical situations, lead them towards uncontrollable evil.

Forster's view is that the British do not care to understand the true nature of India and the Indians and that is why their rule is unsuccessful.

A Passage to India is basically about the clash of two cultures, Do you agree?

Green Land | July 08, 2020 | 0 comments
'A Passage to India' deals with the difficulties men face in their effort to understand each other and the world they live in. Forster sees the British rule as a corruption influence on both the rulers and the ruled. Forster's criticism of imperialism is based on ethical rather than political convictions. A Passage to India is basically about the clash of two cultures.
the clash of two cultures

We see in the very first chapter of the novel that Chandrapore is two towns, the English civil station and the native section, the one having nothing to do with the other. The civil station "shares nothing with the city except the over arching sky". This division in the landscape is symptomatic of the wide gulf that separates the rulers from the ruled. Forster thinks that it is not possible for an Indian to be a friend of an Englishman as long as the English remain unfeeling, proud and automatic towards the Indians. In their dealings with the Indians, the British as a class, operate only at the level of political and social duty.

Thus the ruling Anglo-Indians think of their rule as a burden nobly borne by them in order to civilize the native barbarians. This imperialistic prejudice produces a rigid system in which humanity has been harshly divided into the whites and the coloured. The Anglo-Indians act as a herd, united in their vicious contempt and hatred for the native Indians, whom they despise as belonging to an inferior race. They have built round themselves a rigid barrier of conventions, rank, and position, and feeling. Safe and superior behind this fence of conventions, they look down upon the Indians outside with contempt and disdain. Fearful of the primitive Indians outside, they always feel the need of sticking together, of keeping in step with others in order not to fall behind the herd.

The most frightening expression of this herd-felling is, of course, visible, when the largest numbers of them are gathered together in their club at the Bridge Party, arranged in honour of the new comers, Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested. Some of the distinguished Indians are also invited to the party to bridge the gulf between the British and the Indians. But the Anglo-Indians as a group are simply not interested in their talking to the Indians, they themselves have invited. As a result, the Indians who attend the party on goodwill, feel extremely humiliated.

This mass-hysteria of the Anglo-Indians may also be seen in the trial scene. Their collective concern in the trial scene, is not justice for Adela, but to achieve the utmost humiliation of the Indians. Forster shows how their mass-hysteria can, on critical situations, lead them towards uncontrollable evil.

Forster's view is that the British do not care to understand the true nature of India and the Indians and that is why their rule is unsuccessful.
readmore
 
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