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This is a figure which 'rests on duplicity of sense under unity of sound'. Pun are very often intended humorously but not always. 

Interpretation :

The figure consists in the use of the same sound to convey different meaning. It rests on a play on words that is alike in sound but different in meaning. 

In the example ' An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country '. we observe that the word 'lies' has two meaning :

a. resides

b. tells a lie

In this variety of pun ( also known as Equivoque)  a single word is used in two senses. Again,  in the extract 'Not on thy sole but on thy soul ' we notice another variety of pun where two words having the same sound but different spellings are used in two different senses:

(a) under surface of a foot

(b) spirit

Finally,  in the example ' so is the will of a living daughter curbed by the will of a dead father ' we notice a variation of the preceding variety ; here two words having the same sound and spelling are used in two different senses:

(a) desire

(b) the legal document.

The chief characteristics of this figure are given below:

1. One word is used in two different senses.

2. Two words having the same sound but identical or dissimilar spellings are used in two different senses. 

3. The figure is used generally to excite laughter. 

Illustrations:

1. When the piece of meat fell in the river,  the dog looked at it fondly. 

This is a pun. 

In this figure duplicity of sense is expressed through unity of sound. 

Here a single word ''fondly ' is used in two senses:

(a) affectionately 

(b) foolishly 

2

For a foolish sportsman it is easier to follow a hound than to follow an argument. 

This is a pun. 

This figure consists in a play upon words that are alike in sound but different in meaning. 

Here two words having identical sound and spelling are used to convey two different meanings 

(a) to chase

(b) to understand 


Example :

1.

Is life worth living? - it depends on the liver.  [ (i) human organ  (ii) living person)

2.

But a cannon ball took off his legs 

So he laid down his arms! [( i) limbs (ii)weapons ] ( Hood)

3.

I've met with many a breeze before

But never such a blow [ (i) stroke (ii) blowing of wind] (Hood)


Pun or Paronomasia Definition & Meaning - Literaturemini.com

Green Land | August 08, 2022 | 0 comments

This is a figure which 'rests on duplicity of sense under unity of sound'. Pun are very often intended humorously but not always. 

Interpretation :

The figure consists in the use of the same sound to convey different meaning. It rests on a play on words that is alike in sound but different in meaning. 

In the example ' An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country '. we observe that the word 'lies' has two meaning :

a. resides

b. tells a lie

In this variety of pun ( also known as Equivoque)  a single word is used in two senses. Again,  in the extract 'Not on thy sole but on thy soul ' we notice another variety of pun where two words having the same sound but different spellings are used in two different senses:

(a) under surface of a foot

(b) spirit

Finally,  in the example ' so is the will of a living daughter curbed by the will of a dead father ' we notice a variation of the preceding variety ; here two words having the same sound and spelling are used in two different senses:

(a) desire

(b) the legal document.

The chief characteristics of this figure are given below:

1. One word is used in two different senses.

2. Two words having the same sound but identical or dissimilar spellings are used in two different senses. 

3. The figure is used generally to excite laughter. 

Illustrations:

1. When the piece of meat fell in the river,  the dog looked at it fondly. 

This is a pun. 

In this figure duplicity of sense is expressed through unity of sound. 

Here a single word ''fondly ' is used in two senses:

(a) affectionately 

(b) foolishly 

2

For a foolish sportsman it is easier to follow a hound than to follow an argument. 

This is a pun. 

This figure consists in a play upon words that are alike in sound but different in meaning. 

Here two words having identical sound and spelling are used to convey two different meanings 

(a) to chase

(b) to understand 


Example :

1.

Is life worth living? - it depends on the liver.  [ (i) human organ  (ii) living person)

2.

But a cannon ball took off his legs 

So he laid down his arms! [( i) limbs (ii)weapons ] ( Hood)

3.

I've met with many a breeze before

But never such a blow [ (i) stroke (ii) blowing of wind] (Hood)


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It is Figure in which a likeness  between two different things is stated in an explicit way. 

''The simile', says Bain,'consists in the formal or avowed comparison of one thing to another. 'It', explains Martin, ' Consists of placing two different things side by side and comparing them with regard to some features common to both'.

Interpretation:

Simile is ' the formal and explicit statement of likeness or similar relationship observed in different objects and actions'. It will be easier for us to understand the significance of the above with the help of an example.  In ' I wandered lonely as a cloud' we observe three things :  (a) A comparison between  two different objects ( I and cloud)  is made; (b) the comparison is made explicit with the help of a word of comparison - 'as' and (c) there is a point of comparison - a common feature enabling two dissimilar things to be compared,  and the point of comparison here is a ' lonely' state which is common both to ( i.e.,Wordsworth) and the ' cloud '.

It is to be remembered that while points  (a) and (b) are indispensable for a simile,  point (c) is not.  For example had Wordsworth simply written ' I wandered as a cloud ', it claim as a simile could not have been contested.  It should, again,  be noted that the comparison should not be trite but striking,  yet free from obscurity. 

The chief features of a  simile are given below:

1. One thing is likened to another. 

2. The things are different in nature 

3. The likeness between them is clearly expressed with a word of comparison,  such as like,  so, such, as, etc.

Classification :

Generally speaking there are four types of simile:

1. Regular Simile

2. Common Simile

3. Epic Simile

4. Sustainable Simile

Regular Similes are those in which the number of compared objects does not exceed two.  There is only one set of comparison ( love - leaves or knowledge -start) in such instances as follow :

(a) She bid me take love easy,  as the leaves grow on the tree . ( Yeats)

Common Similes are those which we unconsciously use in our everyday speech,  and by virtue of their frequent use they have lost their freshness and become hackneyed. Here follow some examples:

as dry as bone

as light as a feather

as clear as crystal 

Epic Similes are those in which compared objects are described at length,  and they frequently go beyond the point of comparison and present us a complete poetic picture of some scene or incident suggested by the comparison.  What is important about such simile is that the picture are so greatly expanded that the main point of comparison is often lost or thrown to the background,  and many irrelevant details are introduced,  Since such similes are common in Homer,  they are also known as Homeric Similes,  Here follow examples :

Like one that on a lonesome road

Doth walk in fear and dread

And having once turned round, walks on,

And turns no more his head:

Because he knows a frightful fiend

Doth close beside him tread. (Coleridge) 

Sustained Similes are those in which two or more similes follow in succession to illustrate the same idea.  Two examples are given below:

O my love's like a red, red rose

That's newly sprung in June:

O mt love's like the melody

That's sweetly play'd in time (Burns)



Simile Definition, Meaning & Classification - Literaturemini.com

Green Land | August 08, 2022 | 0 comments

It is Figure in which a likeness  between two different things is stated in an explicit way. 

''The simile', says Bain,'consists in the formal or avowed comparison of one thing to another. 'It', explains Martin, ' Consists of placing two different things side by side and comparing them with regard to some features common to both'.

Interpretation:

Simile is ' the formal and explicit statement of likeness or similar relationship observed in different objects and actions'. It will be easier for us to understand the significance of the above with the help of an example.  In ' I wandered lonely as a cloud' we observe three things :  (a) A comparison between  two different objects ( I and cloud)  is made; (b) the comparison is made explicit with the help of a word of comparison - 'as' and (c) there is a point of comparison - a common feature enabling two dissimilar things to be compared,  and the point of comparison here is a ' lonely' state which is common both to ( i.e.,Wordsworth) and the ' cloud '.

It is to be remembered that while points  (a) and (b) are indispensable for a simile,  point (c) is not.  For example had Wordsworth simply written ' I wandered as a cloud ', it claim as a simile could not have been contested.  It should, again,  be noted that the comparison should not be trite but striking,  yet free from obscurity. 

The chief features of a  simile are given below:

1. One thing is likened to another. 

2. The things are different in nature 

3. The likeness between them is clearly expressed with a word of comparison,  such as like,  so, such, as, etc.

Classification :

Generally speaking there are four types of simile:

1. Regular Simile

2. Common Simile

3. Epic Simile

4. Sustainable Simile

Regular Similes are those in which the number of compared objects does not exceed two.  There is only one set of comparison ( love - leaves or knowledge -start) in such instances as follow :

(a) She bid me take love easy,  as the leaves grow on the tree . ( Yeats)

Common Similes are those which we unconsciously use in our everyday speech,  and by virtue of their frequent use they have lost their freshness and become hackneyed. Here follow some examples:

as dry as bone

as light as a feather

as clear as crystal 

Epic Similes are those in which compared objects are described at length,  and they frequently go beyond the point of comparison and present us a complete poetic picture of some scene or incident suggested by the comparison.  What is important about such simile is that the picture are so greatly expanded that the main point of comparison is often lost or thrown to the background,  and many irrelevant details are introduced,  Since such similes are common in Homer,  they are also known as Homeric Similes,  Here follow examples :

Like one that on a lonesome road

Doth walk in fear and dread

And having once turned round, walks on,

And turns no more his head:

Because he knows a frightful fiend

Doth close beside him tread. (Coleridge) 

Sustained Similes are those in which two or more similes follow in succession to illustrate the same idea.  Two examples are given below:

O my love's like a red, red rose

That's newly sprung in June:

O mt love's like the melody

That's sweetly play'd in time (Burns)



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A conceit is basically a simile or a comparison between two dissimilar things. In a conceit, the dissimilarity between the two things compared, is so great that the reader is always fully conscious of it, even while he agrees to the likeness, implied by the poet. According to Dr. Johnson, in a conceit, the most heterogeneous ideas are "yoked by violence together." This kind of comparison is highly exaggerated, fantastic and far-fetched, and it gives rise to an image.

John Donne, always witty and the terms wit and conceit often bring applied to him, have created a history of their own through the successive generations. The use of wit, and conceit gave him some kind of supremacy among poets as learning and humours gave Ben Jonson among the Elizabethan dramatists.

Generally, Donne is considered to be the innovator of conceits, but, in fact, the Elizabethan poets and dramatists already used conceits in their writing. Shakespeare used conceits in abundance. But an Elizabethan conceit differs from a metaphysical conceit in several respects. A metaphysical conceit, for one thing, is learned but an Elizabethan is not. In drawing a conceit, Donne makes ample use of his learning- his knowledge of scholastic philosophy, medieval astrology, contemporary art and science etc. Those conceits are often far-fetched and recondite. The most fundamental difference between a metaphysical conceit and on Elizabethan one is that the former is an organic part of the poem, while the latter is a mere decoration or ornament of the poem. The metaphysical conceits startle and amuse the readers. They are a part of the poet's technique of communication, amplification and persuasion. Donne makes use of highly intellectual conceits in his poems to illustrate feelings and, in this way, he achieves unification of sensibility. A conceit of Donne is his instrument of argument and persuasion.

We are to remember that the use of wit and conceit forms a major part of Donne's poetic style, and conceit, in fact, displays a formidable wit. So do the various allusions and images relating to practically all the areas of nature, art and learning.

In a conceit, as discussed earlier, we are made to agree with the likeness even while being strongly conscious of the unlikeness. Donne often employs fantastic comparison. The most famous and striking one is the comparisons of a man who travels and his beloved who stays, to a pair of compasses in "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning".

         " If they be two, they are two so As stiff twin compasses are two, They soul the fixed foot, makes no show To move, but doth, it the other do."

The soul of the beloved, the poet says, is like the fixed foot of the compass as she stays at home. The poet's soul is like the other foot of the compass which moved, so to say, in a circle. The fixed foot leans towards the moving foot, and afterwards, the moving foot rejoins the fixed foot. The rejoining of the encircling foot suggests the return of the poet to his beloved and their union.

To conclude, the metaphysical conceits of Donne arose from the intellectual process of thinking in figures of speech. These conceits were opposed to the Elizabethan traditions, because he practised the cult of the eccentric and showed mental gymnastics or jugglery of thoughts. Because of these, his conceits are extremely perverse and tortuous, uncommon and far fetched. In spite of all these, Donne is an original poet in using metaphysical conceits.

What is a metaphysical conceit? Trace elements of conceits in Donne's poetry?

Green Land | July 21, 2022 | 0 comments

A conceit is basically a simile or a comparison between two dissimilar things. In a conceit, the dissimilarity between the two things compared, is so great that the reader is always fully conscious of it, even while he agrees to the likeness, implied by the poet. According to Dr. Johnson, in a conceit, the most heterogeneous ideas are "yoked by violence together." This kind of comparison is highly exaggerated, fantastic and far-fetched, and it gives rise to an image.

John Donne, always witty and the terms wit and conceit often bring applied to him, have created a history of their own through the successive generations. The use of wit, and conceit gave him some kind of supremacy among poets as learning and humours gave Ben Jonson among the Elizabethan dramatists.

Generally, Donne is considered to be the innovator of conceits, but, in fact, the Elizabethan poets and dramatists already used conceits in their writing. Shakespeare used conceits in abundance. But an Elizabethan conceit differs from a metaphysical conceit in several respects. A metaphysical conceit, for one thing, is learned but an Elizabethan is not. In drawing a conceit, Donne makes ample use of his learning- his knowledge of scholastic philosophy, medieval astrology, contemporary art and science etc. Those conceits are often far-fetched and recondite. The most fundamental difference between a metaphysical conceit and on Elizabethan one is that the former is an organic part of the poem, while the latter is a mere decoration or ornament of the poem. The metaphysical conceits startle and amuse the readers. They are a part of the poet's technique of communication, amplification and persuasion. Donne makes use of highly intellectual conceits in his poems to illustrate feelings and, in this way, he achieves unification of sensibility. A conceit of Donne is his instrument of argument and persuasion.

We are to remember that the use of wit and conceit forms a major part of Donne's poetic style, and conceit, in fact, displays a formidable wit. So do the various allusions and images relating to practically all the areas of nature, art and learning.

In a conceit, as discussed earlier, we are made to agree with the likeness even while being strongly conscious of the unlikeness. Donne often employs fantastic comparison. The most famous and striking one is the comparisons of a man who travels and his beloved who stays, to a pair of compasses in "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning".

         " If they be two, they are two so As stiff twin compasses are two, They soul the fixed foot, makes no show To move, but doth, it the other do."

The soul of the beloved, the poet says, is like the fixed foot of the compass as she stays at home. The poet's soul is like the other foot of the compass which moved, so to say, in a circle. The fixed foot leans towards the moving foot, and afterwards, the moving foot rejoins the fixed foot. The rejoining of the encircling foot suggests the return of the poet to his beloved and their union.

To conclude, the metaphysical conceits of Donne arose from the intellectual process of thinking in figures of speech. These conceits were opposed to the Elizabethan traditions, because he practised the cult of the eccentric and showed mental gymnastics or jugglery of thoughts. Because of these, his conceits are extremely perverse and tortuous, uncommon and far fetched. In spite of all these, Donne is an original poet in using metaphysical conceits.

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"To His Coy Mistress" of Andrew Marvell is a master-piece of Metaphysical poetry. It is a love-poem in which the speaker offers a strong plea to his beloved to soften towards him and relax her rigid attitude of puritanical reluctance to grant him sexual favours. The lovers, who may be the poet himself, builds up a strong plea and supports it with arguments which can not be refuted by a young woman. The poem thus contains the 'carpe diem' theme. 'Carpe diem', a Latin phrase means to seize the opportunity. The full implication of the phrase is "enjoy the present moments without caring for the future."

The poem is written in the form of a syllogism. Syllogism means an argument developed in a strictly logical form leading to a definite conclusion. In a syllogism there are three stages which may be indicated here by three words initiating each stage in the argument. These three words are: if, but , therefore.

The poem may be divided into three clearly marked sections. The first section begins with 'if'. Here the word 'had' conveys the sense of 'if' and in this section the lover says that the lady's coyness or indifference to physical enjoyments would have been justified if they had enough space and time at their disposal. Having enough space and time at their disposal, she could have occupied herself in searching for rubies on the banks of the Indians river, the Ganges, while he would complain about his unfulfilled love on the banks of the river Humber in England. The lover argues that having enough space and time, he would spend hundreds and thousands of years in admire and adoring various parts of her body.

The second section of the poem starts with 'but'. In the second section the lover refutes in an argumentative way as in a syllogism, the premise of the first section. The lover here says that all his propositions in the first section are not possible. Time is passing very swiftly and eventually they have to face the vast eternity. After a few years her beauty will decay and she will, after her death, will lie in a grave where worms will attack and pollute her long- preserved virginity. All her sense of honour and chastity will be meaningless there. The grave is a place where none can enjoy the pleasure of love making.

The third section begins with "therefore". As in a syllogism, on the basis of the arguments in the first and second sections, the lover draws a conclusion in the third section. Now it would be appropriate for both the lovers to enjoy the pleasures of love when there is still time, when her skin is still youthful and fresh. They should enjoy the pleasures of love making with all their energy and vigour.

To sum up, the poem resembles a syllogism in its arguments in favour of enjoying the pleasures of the present moments. It begins with the statement of a condition, then reasons are given why that condition cannot be fulfilled; and finally a conclusion is drawn. The conclusion of the poem is that the lovers should lose no time in enjoying the pleasures of love. The conclusion is justified in saying that the theme of the poem is that of 'carpe diem' which means that one should enjoy the present moments without caring for the future.

Discuss the 'carpe diem' theme in the poem, "To His Coy Mistress"

Green Land | July 21, 2022 | 0 comments
"To His Coy Mistress" of Andrew Marvell is a master-piece of Metaphysical poetry. It is a love-poem in which the speaker offers a strong plea to his beloved to soften towards him and relax her rigid attitude of puritanical reluctance to grant him sexual favours. The lovers, who may be the poet himself, builds up a strong plea and supports it with arguments which can not be refuted by a young woman. The poem thus contains the 'carpe diem' theme. 'Carpe diem', a Latin phrase means to seize the opportunity. The full implication of the phrase is "enjoy the present moments without caring for the future."

The poem is written in the form of a syllogism. Syllogism means an argument developed in a strictly logical form leading to a definite conclusion. In a syllogism there are three stages which may be indicated here by three words initiating each stage in the argument. These three words are: if, but , therefore.

The poem may be divided into three clearly marked sections. The first section begins with 'if'. Here the word 'had' conveys the sense of 'if' and in this section the lover says that the lady's coyness or indifference to physical enjoyments would have been justified if they had enough space and time at their disposal. Having enough space and time at their disposal, she could have occupied herself in searching for rubies on the banks of the Indians river, the Ganges, while he would complain about his unfulfilled love on the banks of the river Humber in England. The lover argues that having enough space and time, he would spend hundreds and thousands of years in admire and adoring various parts of her body.

The second section of the poem starts with 'but'. In the second section the lover refutes in an argumentative way as in a syllogism, the premise of the first section. The lover here says that all his propositions in the first section are not possible. Time is passing very swiftly and eventually they have to face the vast eternity. After a few years her beauty will decay and she will, after her death, will lie in a grave where worms will attack and pollute her long- preserved virginity. All her sense of honour and chastity will be meaningless there. The grave is a place where none can enjoy the pleasure of love making.

The third section begins with "therefore". As in a syllogism, on the basis of the arguments in the first and second sections, the lover draws a conclusion in the third section. Now it would be appropriate for both the lovers to enjoy the pleasures of love when there is still time, when her skin is still youthful and fresh. They should enjoy the pleasures of love making with all their energy and vigour.

To sum up, the poem resembles a syllogism in its arguments in favour of enjoying the pleasures of the present moments. It begins with the statement of a condition, then reasons are given why that condition cannot be fulfilled; and finally a conclusion is drawn. The conclusion of the poem is that the lovers should lose no time in enjoying the pleasures of love. The conclusion is justified in saying that the theme of the poem is that of 'carpe diem' which means that one should enjoy the present moments without caring for the future.
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Andrew Marvell is the only puritan among the Metaphysical poets. But he is not a gloomy type of man like the puritans of his age. He is a humanist, a wit and a poet. He is not against worldly and artistic amusement. In his attitude to love he belongs to the school of John Donne and like Donne he gives importance to the intellectual elements such as witty conceits, blend of passion and thought in his love poems.

In writing love poetry, Marvell was greatly influenced by the Elizabethan poets. He has a tendency to describe his beloved in hyperbolical terms. The lover in "To His Coy Mistress" says,

"My vegetable love should grow Vaster than empires, and more slow."

If the lovers really had enough time, he would spend a hundred years in praising his beloved's eyes and gazing on her forehead, he would spend two hundred years in admiring each of her breasts, and he would spend thirty thousand years in praising the remaining parts of her body. Marvell shows his sensuality by preferring body to soul, lust to love.His fierce and violent passion may be noted in the following lines:

"Let us roll all our strength, and all our sweetness up into one ball, And tear our pleasures with rough strife, Through the iron gates of life."

Marvell believes that human passion of love suffers a decay in death. So he proposes to utilize the present moment in enjoying the pleasures of life.

Like Donne Marvell blends passion with intellect and reason. While he expresses his passion of love he uses witty and intellectual conceits and logical arguments. "The Definition of Love" is a notable example of the argumentative love lyric. The poem begins with an intellectual conceit. He says that his love was "begotten by Despair/upon Impossibility". "Magnanimous Despair" alone could show him so divine a thing as love. He could have achieved the fruition of his love, but Fate drove iron wedges and placed itself net him and the fulfilment of his love. Fate grew jealous of two perfect lovers and did not permit their union, because the union of two lovers would mean the ruin of the power of Fate. Finally, he describes the love between him, and his mistress as the conjunction of the minds and the opposition of the stars. The whole poem is a kind of logically developed argument in which the passion itself is almost forgotten and the speaker's chief concern is to establish the utter hopelessness of true love.

To sum up, the poems of Andrew Marvell are the master pieces of metaphysical poetry. In his love poems, Marvell, in an ironical strain, takes an opportunity to denounce woman's tricks, artifices and coquetry. His feeling issues from a heart truly deep and passionate, and the love which is demanded is violent and forceful.

Marvell as a poet of love

Green Land | July 21, 2022 | 0 comments

Andrew Marvell is the only puritan among the Metaphysical poets. But he is not a gloomy type of man like the puritans of his age. He is a humanist, a wit and a poet. He is not against worldly and artistic amusement. In his attitude to love he belongs to the school of John Donne and like Donne he gives importance to the intellectual elements such as witty conceits, blend of passion and thought in his love poems.

In writing love poetry, Marvell was greatly influenced by the Elizabethan poets. He has a tendency to describe his beloved in hyperbolical terms. The lover in "To His Coy Mistress" says,

"My vegetable love should grow Vaster than empires, and more slow."

If the lovers really had enough time, he would spend a hundred years in praising his beloved's eyes and gazing on her forehead, he would spend two hundred years in admiring each of her breasts, and he would spend thirty thousand years in praising the remaining parts of her body. Marvell shows his sensuality by preferring body to soul, lust to love.His fierce and violent passion may be noted in the following lines:

"Let us roll all our strength, and all our sweetness up into one ball, And tear our pleasures with rough strife, Through the iron gates of life."

Marvell believes that human passion of love suffers a decay in death. So he proposes to utilize the present moment in enjoying the pleasures of life.

Like Donne Marvell blends passion with intellect and reason. While he expresses his passion of love he uses witty and intellectual conceits and logical arguments. "The Definition of Love" is a notable example of the argumentative love lyric. The poem begins with an intellectual conceit. He says that his love was "begotten by Despair/upon Impossibility". "Magnanimous Despair" alone could show him so divine a thing as love. He could have achieved the fruition of his love, but Fate drove iron wedges and placed itself net him and the fulfilment of his love. Fate grew jealous of two perfect lovers and did not permit their union, because the union of two lovers would mean the ruin of the power of Fate. Finally, he describes the love between him, and his mistress as the conjunction of the minds and the opposition of the stars. The whole poem is a kind of logically developed argument in which the passion itself is almost forgotten and the speaker's chief concern is to establish the utter hopelessness of true love.

To sum up, the poems of Andrew Marvell are the master pieces of metaphysical poetry. In his love poems, Marvell, in an ironical strain, takes an opportunity to denounce woman's tricks, artifices and coquetry. His feeling issues from a heart truly deep and passionate, and the love which is demanded is violent and forceful.

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The word rhetoric comes from the Greek word rhetor meaning a public speaker. In ancient Greece and Rome oratory was a part of rhetoric, the art of speaking before the public in a persuasive manner. Greek and Roman youths who aspired to hold public offices had to learn rhetoric well since they were frequently required to persuade, convince, move or impress others through Their speeches. To Aristotle rhetoric was the art of ' discovering and applying all the possible means of persuasion on any subject '. In course of time it was extended from speech to writing as well.  This change indicates that a good composition should exhibit some qualities that are aimed at moving the feelings of others, in addition to grammatical accuracy. 

In Greece,  schools were founded to impart training to learners on this subject. Aristotle and Quintilion discussed  the theory of rhetoric. This subject, with definite rules and models, was also emphasized in the education of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, though it largely remained confined to the Church. 

According to Locke rhetoric was  Now it means ' the whole art of elegant and effective composition, whether spoken or written '. Smith rightly regards rhetoric as ' the art of clear and effective use of language ' written or spoken,  as a vehicle for the communication of ideas.

Rhetoric and Grammar 

Both rhetoric and grammar are concerned with rules of composition and order of words in a sentence. Yet Their aims are different. While grammar aims at correctness of expression,  rhetoric,  in addition to this,  aims at making the expression beautiful and forceful. An expression may be grammatically correct ; still it may not be clear or graceful. Rhetoric removes this deficiency and makes one's composition perfect. Herein lies the superiority of rhetoric over grammar. 

Functions of Rhetoric 

There are two misconceptions as regards the use of rhetoric. The first is that ordinary persons use only literal language and the use of rhetoric lies beyond Their scope. The second is that the study of rhetoric is futile since a user of rhetoric,  whether in speech or writing,  does so by virtue of his natural gift and inborn power,  and not by any acquired quality.  In defence against the first we may point out that it is a widely observed fact that even ordinary persons  use, no matter whether consciously or unconsciously, a bit of rhetoric in their daily speech,  particularly when they try to express their thoughts forcefully.  In defence Against the second we may say that through the study of rhetoric will not turn everyone into a fine orator or an accomplished author,  it will certainly help a man to use his natural power to the greatest advantage,  enkindling within him an urge to add to his speech or writing both beauty and force to which he was hitherto almost unconscious. 

Thus,  it cannot be denied that the study of rhetoric is helpful to students and teachers,  orators and authors public and publicists,  as it enables them to express their thoughts and  ideas neatly,  elegantly and effectively.  We may say that the function of rhetoric is to employ such means whereby the effect of one's words on another's mind can be left striking and lasting. 

Rhetoric Definition & Meaning- Literaturemini.com

Green Land | July 20, 2022 | 0 comments

The word rhetoric comes from the Greek word rhetor meaning a public speaker. In ancient Greece and Rome oratory was a part of rhetoric, the art of speaking before the public in a persuasive manner. Greek and Roman youths who aspired to hold public offices had to learn rhetoric well since they were frequently required to persuade, convince, move or impress others through Their speeches. To Aristotle rhetoric was the art of ' discovering and applying all the possible means of persuasion on any subject '. In course of time it was extended from speech to writing as well.  This change indicates that a good composition should exhibit some qualities that are aimed at moving the feelings of others, in addition to grammatical accuracy. 

In Greece,  schools were founded to impart training to learners on this subject. Aristotle and Quintilion discussed  the theory of rhetoric. This subject, with definite rules and models, was also emphasized in the education of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, though it largely remained confined to the Church. 

According to Locke rhetoric was  Now it means ' the whole art of elegant and effective composition, whether spoken or written '. Smith rightly regards rhetoric as ' the art of clear and effective use of language ' written or spoken,  as a vehicle for the communication of ideas.

Rhetoric and Grammar 

Both rhetoric and grammar are concerned with rules of composition and order of words in a sentence. Yet Their aims are different. While grammar aims at correctness of expression,  rhetoric,  in addition to this,  aims at making the expression beautiful and forceful. An expression may be grammatically correct ; still it may not be clear or graceful. Rhetoric removes this deficiency and makes one's composition perfect. Herein lies the superiority of rhetoric over grammar. 

Functions of Rhetoric 

There are two misconceptions as regards the use of rhetoric. The first is that ordinary persons use only literal language and the use of rhetoric lies beyond Their scope. The second is that the study of rhetoric is futile since a user of rhetoric,  whether in speech or writing,  does so by virtue of his natural gift and inborn power,  and not by any acquired quality.  In defence against the first we may point out that it is a widely observed fact that even ordinary persons  use, no matter whether consciously or unconsciously, a bit of rhetoric in their daily speech,  particularly when they try to express their thoughts forcefully.  In defence Against the second we may say that through the study of rhetoric will not turn everyone into a fine orator or an accomplished author,  it will certainly help a man to use his natural power to the greatest advantage,  enkindling within him an urge to add to his speech or writing both beauty and force to which he was hitherto almost unconscious. 

Thus,  it cannot be denied that the study of rhetoric is helpful to students and teachers,  orators and authors public and publicists,  as it enables them to express their thoughts and  ideas neatly,  elegantly and effectively.  We may say that the function of rhetoric is to employ such means whereby the effect of one's words on another's mind can be left striking and lasting. 

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George Herbert, in temperament and style of his writing, ranks among the outstanding group of poets known as "The metaphysicals" and by virtue of his faith in God and religion, he stands as the most distinguished Anglican poet among this group. His poetry is a record of religious experiences a record of strivings, failures and victories in the practice of the Christian life. He gave up life of worldly pleasures and worldly ambition in order to become a country priest and to devote himself to the service to God, both in the capacity as a poet and as a priest in practical life.

Herbert seems to have wished to combine a secular career with a religious life. As with Donne, circumstances compelled him to join the church and after he had become a priest, he was not altogether able to forget his worldly interests. This was the reason for the spiritual conflicts which he experienced and which are vividly depicted in a number of his poems. However, in Herbert's poetry there is no evidence of the deeper scars, the profounder remorse which gives such an anguished quality to the verses of his older friend Donne. Herbert knows the feeling of alienation from God; but he knows also the feeling of reconcilement the joy and peace of religion as in the following lines.

"You must sit down, says Love, and taste my meat. So I did sit and eat.( Love)

Herbert finds his theme in his own heart, in his efforts to subdue his high, worldly rebellious spirit to the divine will or to rekindle inner flame when it seems to flicker low. What makes Herbert a great religious and metaphysical poet is this conflict and tension.

Herbert admits that he is a human being and that his senses crave for certain pleasures. But he is in a position to control those cravings and he loves God despite the cravings of his flesh. So, he aspires to climb to God under God's own guidance. The poet's love of God is so strong and so deep that he does not find it difficult to devote himself wholly to the service of God.

" The Collar" contains the same conflict between a secular life and a religious life in an intensely dramatic form. The poet feels a strong urge to rebel against God and to give up this life of servitude in order to enjoy unlimited freedom. But as he raves and becomes wild in his anger against God, He rebukes him gently, saying "child" and the poet is at once humble and replies, "My Lord." Thus the single word 'child' is a tender rebuke for childish rebellion and a reminder of the former relation of "Father" and "son". The poet's reply signifies his complete surrender to God's will.

Thus, there are many poems which contain the spiritual conflicts that had passed between God and the poet's soul before he could subject his will to the will of Jesus Christ, his master, in whose service he had eventually found perfect freedom. So, his poetry does not simply express the conflicts, it is continuously and steadily directed towards resolution and integration. They may justly be described as colloquies of the soul with God, or as self-communings which seek to bring order into that complex personality of his, which he analyses ceaselessly and rigorously.

Write a note on the nature of spiritual conflict in Herbert's poems?

Green Land | June 20, 2022 | 0 comments

George Herbert, in temperament and style of his writing, ranks among the outstanding group of poets known as "The metaphysicals" and by virtue of his faith in God and religion, he stands as the most distinguished Anglican poet among this group. His poetry is a record of religious experiences a record of strivings, failures and victories in the practice of the Christian life. He gave up life of worldly pleasures and worldly ambition in order to become a country priest and to devote himself to the service to God, both in the capacity as a poet and as a priest in practical life.

Herbert seems to have wished to combine a secular career with a religious life. As with Donne, circumstances compelled him to join the church and after he had become a priest, he was not altogether able to forget his worldly interests. This was the reason for the spiritual conflicts which he experienced and which are vividly depicted in a number of his poems. However, in Herbert's poetry there is no evidence of the deeper scars, the profounder remorse which gives such an anguished quality to the verses of his older friend Donne. Herbert knows the feeling of alienation from God; but he knows also the feeling of reconcilement the joy and peace of religion as in the following lines.

"You must sit down, says Love, and taste my meat. So I did sit and eat.( Love)

Herbert finds his theme in his own heart, in his efforts to subdue his high, worldly rebellious spirit to the divine will or to rekindle inner flame when it seems to flicker low. What makes Herbert a great religious and metaphysical poet is this conflict and tension.

Herbert admits that he is a human being and that his senses crave for certain pleasures. But he is in a position to control those cravings and he loves God despite the cravings of his flesh. So, he aspires to climb to God under God's own guidance. The poet's love of God is so strong and so deep that he does not find it difficult to devote himself wholly to the service of God.

" The Collar" contains the same conflict between a secular life and a religious life in an intensely dramatic form. The poet feels a strong urge to rebel against God and to give up this life of servitude in order to enjoy unlimited freedom. But as he raves and becomes wild in his anger against God, He rebukes him gently, saying "child" and the poet is at once humble and replies, "My Lord." Thus the single word 'child' is a tender rebuke for childish rebellion and a reminder of the former relation of "Father" and "son". The poet's reply signifies his complete surrender to God's will.

Thus, there are many poems which contain the spiritual conflicts that had passed between God and the poet's soul before he could subject his will to the will of Jesus Christ, his master, in whose service he had eventually found perfect freedom. So, his poetry does not simply express the conflicts, it is continuously and steadily directed towards resolution and integration. They may justly be described as colloquies of the soul with God, or as self-communings which seek to bring order into that complex personality of his, which he analyses ceaselessly and rigorously.

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A lyric is a short poem uttered by a single speaker who expresses a state of mind or a process of perception, thought and feeling. A lyric seems to have come directly from the poet's heart, without any effort or labour on his part. The principal qualities of a lyric are: music or melody, strong emotion, personal revelation, spontaneity and imagination. Herbert is definitely a lyric poet, although he does not deal with the theme of love or passion as Donne does. The only love he knows is the love of God or the love of Jesus Christ, and the only passion he knows is the agony that Christ suffered for the sins of mankind. Herbert's poems are musical, simply, spontaneous, strongly emotional, highly imaginative and deeply personal. 

Music and melody are the remarkable qualities of Herbert's poetry. He produces music of his verses by means of such devices as alliteration, assonance and rhyme. From the technical point of view, Herbert is a versatile genius who employs a very large number of stanzaic forms in simple language. 

Herbert's lyrics possess a kind of emotional intensity that arise out of a deep religious devotion. The sincerity and depth of his devotion to God are unquestionable. He has rightly been called a saint among this metaphysical poets.

As Herbert is a poet of religious meditations, most of his lyrics are saturated with passion and devotion. This means there is a fusion of emotion and intellect, feelings and logical reasoning. The poem "Easter Wings" celebrates Christ's Resurrection. At the same time, it expresses the poet's earnest desire to fly upward like a lark in order to achieve spiritual elevation.

The pattern of the poem reminds us of the wings of a lark flying upwards. The poet wishes to fly upwards like a bird. He wants to fly upwards just as Christ ascended to heaven on the third day after the crucifixion. On the occasion of Easter is the festival celebrating Christ's ascension. On this occasion of Easter, the poet would like to fly upwards. The poet's fight is, of course, not a literal one but metaphorical in the sense of a spiritual elevation or regeneration. The pictorial device of the poem, its structure and detail give us a beautiful example of conceit which shows Herbert's faculty for blending emotion and intellect, feelings and logical arguments. 

Next we are to consider Herbert's personal and biographical character in his lyrics. Almost all his poems are deeply personal and expressive of his own feelings, emotions, thoughts, reasonings, doubts, conflicts, resolutions, reconciliation, consolations, etc. 

Further many of Herbert's lyrics are marked by dramatic quality, conceits, wits, etc. In "The Collar", the poet holds a conversation with himself and ultimately his revolutionary spirit leads to his complete surrender to God. For conceit we may refer to " Easter Wings " in which the poet makes a comparison between the upward flight of the lark and his spiritual upliftment.

To sum up, the religious poems of Herbert are the spontaneous outbursts of his feelings and love for God. They come directly from his heart and have the stamp of sincerity. That is why they are so much lyrical.

Show Herbert as a lyric poet?

Green Land | June 20, 2022 | 0 comments

A lyric is a short poem uttered by a single speaker who expresses a state of mind or a process of perception, thought and feeling. A lyric seems to have come directly from the poet's heart, without any effort or labour on his part. The principal qualities of a lyric are: music or melody, strong emotion, personal revelation, spontaneity and imagination. Herbert is definitely a lyric poet, although he does not deal with the theme of love or passion as Donne does. The only love he knows is the love of God or the love of Jesus Christ, and the only passion he knows is the agony that Christ suffered for the sins of mankind. Herbert's poems are musical, simply, spontaneous, strongly emotional, highly imaginative and deeply personal. 

Music and melody are the remarkable qualities of Herbert's poetry. He produces music of his verses by means of such devices as alliteration, assonance and rhyme. From the technical point of view, Herbert is a versatile genius who employs a very large number of stanzaic forms in simple language. 

Herbert's lyrics possess a kind of emotional intensity that arise out of a deep religious devotion. The sincerity and depth of his devotion to God are unquestionable. He has rightly been called a saint among this metaphysical poets.

As Herbert is a poet of religious meditations, most of his lyrics are saturated with passion and devotion. This means there is a fusion of emotion and intellect, feelings and logical reasoning. The poem "Easter Wings" celebrates Christ's Resurrection. At the same time, it expresses the poet's earnest desire to fly upward like a lark in order to achieve spiritual elevation.

The pattern of the poem reminds us of the wings of a lark flying upwards. The poet wishes to fly upwards like a bird. He wants to fly upwards just as Christ ascended to heaven on the third day after the crucifixion. On the occasion of Easter is the festival celebrating Christ's ascension. On this occasion of Easter, the poet would like to fly upwards. The poet's fight is, of course, not a literal one but metaphorical in the sense of a spiritual elevation or regeneration. The pictorial device of the poem, its structure and detail give us a beautiful example of conceit which shows Herbert's faculty for blending emotion and intellect, feelings and logical arguments. 

Next we are to consider Herbert's personal and biographical character in his lyrics. Almost all his poems are deeply personal and expressive of his own feelings, emotions, thoughts, reasonings, doubts, conflicts, resolutions, reconciliation, consolations, etc. 

Further many of Herbert's lyrics are marked by dramatic quality, conceits, wits, etc. In "The Collar", the poet holds a conversation with himself and ultimately his revolutionary spirit leads to his complete surrender to God. For conceit we may refer to " Easter Wings " in which the poet makes a comparison between the upward flight of the lark and his spiritual upliftment.

To sum up, the religious poems of Herbert are the spontaneous outbursts of his feelings and love for God. They come directly from his heart and have the stamp of sincerity. That is why they are so much lyrical.

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