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Look Back in Anger contains recurrent images of beasts which are suggestive and meaningful in context of the drama. Jimmy Porter's denunciation of individuals like Alison, Alison's mother and Helena is replete with beast imagery conveying special meaning. Mrs. Redfern , Alison's mother is called a ' rhinoceros in labour ', a 'female rhino', ' an old bitch', and ' an overfed privileged old bitch', Alison is referred to contemptuously as a ' stupid bitch', and 'that bitch', ' She is also a python ' which devours Jimmy whole every time as if he were a rabbit Again in his lyric in Act II, Scene I, he sings, ' avoid that old python coil', when he refers to women in love. M.D. Faber in his article,  The Character of Jimmy Porter ' discusses Jimmy's oral fixation and refers to his fear of  ' being eaten or devoured '. So Alison  becomes the devouring python. 

Jimmy's orality is beastly when once for a change, Cliff uses beast imagery to denigrate Jimmy,  calling him ' a bloody pig' for his hunger.  However,  Cliff uses the same image in a different sense when he says that Jimmy is ' too much of a pig' to appreciate Alison's  beauty. At the same time, Jimmy,  Alison and Cliff refer lovingly to one another as the bear,  the squirrel and the mouse respectively. 

Best imagery in Look Back in Anger

Green Land | January 02, 2022 | 0 comments

Look Back in Anger contains recurrent images of beasts which are suggestive and meaningful in context of the drama. Jimmy Porter's denunciation of individuals like Alison, Alison's mother and Helena is replete with beast imagery conveying special meaning. Mrs. Redfern , Alison's mother is called a ' rhinoceros in labour ', a 'female rhino', ' an old bitch', and ' an overfed privileged old bitch', Alison is referred to contemptuously as a ' stupid bitch', and 'that bitch', ' She is also a python ' which devours Jimmy whole every time as if he were a rabbit Again in his lyric in Act II, Scene I, he sings, ' avoid that old python coil', when he refers to women in love. M.D. Faber in his article,  The Character of Jimmy Porter ' discusses Jimmy's oral fixation and refers to his fear of  ' being eaten or devoured '. So Alison  becomes the devouring python. 

Jimmy's orality is beastly when once for a change, Cliff uses beast imagery to denigrate Jimmy,  calling him ' a bloody pig' for his hunger.  However,  Cliff uses the same image in a different sense when he says that Jimmy is ' too much of a pig' to appreciate Alison's  beauty. At the same time, Jimmy,  Alison and Cliff refer lovingly to one another as the bear,  the squirrel and the mouse respectively. 

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Existentialism is a European  philosophy that focuses on the individual human being's experience and recognition of and triumph over the meaninglessness of existence. It is a revolt against traditions and conversations- religious, moral, political, legal, ethical, economic etc. and attempt towards man's true freedom. It emphasizes individual uniqueness, freedom, and responsibility in opposition to various forms of determinism, its name deriving from the principle that 'existence precedes essence': that is human choices are not dictated by a determining essence or fixed human nature.

Rooted in the thoughts of nineteenth and early twentieth-century figures  such as Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fyodor Dostoevsky,  and Franz Kafka,existentialism became widely influence in the 1940s, especially after the horrors of World War II, through the novels, plays and philosophical writing of Jean Paul  Sartre. Other notable exponents of existentialism  are Gabriel Marcel, Albert Camus, Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Jean Genet and Harold Pinter, According to the existentialism man is because he exists, 

Man is more important that all rules, regulations, laws, principles or values, Man's existence is essentially miserable, lonely, alienated : the desire for happiness is a myth. Thus the existentialists regard human life as absurd or meaningless.

Define Existentialism

Green Land | December 30, 2021 | 0 comments

Existentialism is a European  philosophy that focuses on the individual human being's experience and recognition of and triumph over the meaninglessness of existence. It is a revolt against traditions and conversations- religious, moral, political, legal, ethical, economic etc. and attempt towards man's true freedom. It emphasizes individual uniqueness, freedom, and responsibility in opposition to various forms of determinism, its name deriving from the principle that 'existence precedes essence': that is human choices are not dictated by a determining essence or fixed human nature.

Rooted in the thoughts of nineteenth and early twentieth-century figures  such as Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Fyodor Dostoevsky,  and Franz Kafka,existentialism became widely influence in the 1940s, especially after the horrors of World War II, through the novels, plays and philosophical writing of Jean Paul  Sartre. Other notable exponents of existentialism  are Gabriel Marcel, Albert Camus, Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Jean Genet and Harold Pinter, According to the existentialism man is because he exists, 

Man is more important that all rules, regulations, laws, principles or values, Man's existence is essentially miserable, lonely, alienated : the desire for happiness is a myth. Thus the existentialists regard human life as absurd or meaningless.

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The literature of the twentieth century is exclusively marked by realism and drama is no exception in this respect. The drama  of the early twentieth century being influenced by Ibsen, Shaw, Galsworthy  was too realistic  and too involved with the contemporary social problems. Ibsen,  the Norwegian  dramatists , who popularised the theme  of realism in modern drama, dealt with the problems  of life in realistic way. In England  also realism gained popularity with the works of Robertson, Jones,  Pinero,  Shaw, Granville Barker,  Galsworthy and number of other dramatists who dealt with real life and problems that the modern society  faced in their in their plays, These playwrights dealt in their works with the current problems of society such as problems  of marriage, Justice, law, administration and strife between capital and labour.

Shaw produced his first play with a view to carrying the serious drama over into the field of social, domestic or personal problems. The problem plays expose the cant and hypocrisy of the modern times. They aim at revealing the horrid realities behind the sacred ideals and romantic common places cherished and upheld by the middle-class society. In this sense Look Back in Anger is a realistic drama of our time.

Realism in modern drama Or Look Back in Anger is a realistic drama

Green Land | December 29, 2021 | 0 comments

The literature of the twentieth century is exclusively marked by realism and drama is no exception in this respect. The drama  of the early twentieth century being influenced by Ibsen, Shaw, Galsworthy  was too realistic  and too involved with the contemporary social problems. Ibsen,  the Norwegian  dramatists , who popularised the theme  of realism in modern drama, dealt with the problems  of life in realistic way. In England  also realism gained popularity with the works of Robertson, Jones,  Pinero,  Shaw, Granville Barker,  Galsworthy and number of other dramatists who dealt with real life and problems that the modern society  faced in their in their plays, These playwrights dealt in their works with the current problems of society such as problems  of marriage, Justice, law, administration and strife between capital and labour.

Shaw produced his first play with a view to carrying the serious drama over into the field of social, domestic or personal problems. The problem plays expose the cant and hypocrisy of the modern times. They aim at revealing the horrid realities behind the sacred ideals and romantic common places cherished and upheld by the middle-class society. In this sense Look Back in Anger is a realistic drama of our time.

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No one was born with a writing talent in both hands. Sad but true. The only way to obtain this skill is to write all the time you can dedicate to this practice. No matter what you want to create—an academic paper or an original horror bestseller, you should work over your typical mistakes to grow. At the university, college, or school, you may address your question to the teachers or mentors to get personalized advice on how to improve your writing. But even they can’t lead you constantly.

We prepared a set of professional tips on how to make your writing sound more solid and mature. They are quite simple (and free), but if you recall them the next time you start writing from scratch, your papers will become of much better quality.

1. Remember your audience

Writing is a very slow speaking process, in some sense. Any expert knows the key audience well and prepares for the communication accordingly. He conducts the research of who’ll read or listen to him. So even students understand after a few failed essays what their mentor expects to see their papers. The features of your audience are keys to the language that you should use in your assignment. The less you know about who will read your text, the less is the chance to guess all the specifics of a paper.

2. Follow the structure and logic of your text

The structure and logic of your writing are playing the same role as a tempo in the music. No one likes jumping over melodies, except jazzmen. Your essay will become more clear if you keep your structure relentlessly. After you finish your paragraph, review it and check if it’s connected with the previous one with the logical bounds and links to the same heading or subheading.

Professional writers can keep you in some kind of reading trance thanks to a tight chain of events on the slender structure. This is a top skill you definitely can’t buy for the money!

3. Small sentences work better

This rule comes from the speaking language. It’s easy to deal with short finalized ideas covered in a few words. The best way to write a great sentence is to delete all the glitter to leave only the main thought. The connected flow of such statements will create a feeling of your confidence and make you a more trustworthy writer.

4. Use reliable sources

When you quote someone or use some sources to present facts, check them twice. In the world of fakes, half-truths, made-up reviews, you have to be sure that you don’t double them to your audience. You can’t use any website or service that you want, only those that are responsible for their data, news, or research results. Do not copy the cheap, plagiarized papers that rewrite the same old book paragraph again and again. Choose reliable companies for assistance in your writing, if you need to, but avoid scammers.

5. Replace jargon with a plain English

This advice comes from professional writers of an online paper writing service called CustomWritings.com that’s popular in the USA. They have created tons of academic papers for the last 15 years, and the main thing that distinguishes newbie essay writers from experts is that the first ones try to put a lot of “smart” words in their lines, while the second category keeps everything simple and clear.

Be like a pro, avoid complex language.

6. Avoid value judgments

This is “bad” or that is “wrong”, they are “crazy,” or we’re “the best”—all these shallow words can’t hide that you don’t have any better facts to describe what you’re talking about. All value judgments are vague and will be covered with questions by your readers. Why do they have to believe you, just because you say that? Prove your words with facts and arguments, or avoid such evaluations in general.

7. Go beyond your first draft

Few variants of any paper should keep you company constantly while you’re mastering your topic. The first draft is always so raw, even if you think that it’s a masterpiece. Hold on, Shakespeare, just go to sleep and read it in the morning, and you’ll be shocked. When you finish your second draft, you can sew your text block more evenly and tightly. But even the third iteration is not always the last one.
If you have time, give yourself plenty of space and chances to write one topic from multiple points of view. You’ll get a lot of material to use and find inner connections that were unrevealed after you finish the first draft. Every time you create a draft, you practice, and it means that you’re growing. So never give up!

8. Proofread your writing

You can become a customer of one of the professional proofreading services. This is the simplest way to perfect your text. The editors and proofreaders might freak you out sometimes, but their work is irreplaceable for any writer who wants to reach mastery. These people will be as strict to your paper, as you never can be by yourself.

9. Do not try to brag

This is a very bad idea to add some compliments to the author directly in the text. Order yourself a pizza, but don’t try to show off in your essays. Remember the rules we’re all playing here: your audience is a king and your message, your main thought of a text, is a queen, and you’re somewhere in the shadow, while these two are meeting each other. There will be some other person who will treat you with a compliment if you’ll deserve it.

10. Don’t be afraid to joke

Everything could not be serious all the time, except for scientific papers, but even there a glimpse of a smile will make reading more interesting. The masterfully presented custom joke will flatter you as a writer. So give it a try to show how well you know your audience and how deep is your knowledge of the background.

So there you have it. Our advice can help you to take one step closer to becoming a writer of your dream. Yes, it’s only an online article, but these tricks might work when other ideas are drained. Or even if you just remind yourself of all the golden rules of written words—our work wasn’t a waste.

10 tips to make your writing sound more professional

Green Land | December 23, 2021 | 0 comments

No one was born with a writing talent in both hands. Sad but true. The only way to obtain this skill is to write all the time you can dedicate to this practice. No matter what you want to create—an academic paper or an original horror bestseller, you should work over your typical mistakes to grow. At the university, college, or school, you may address your question to the teachers or mentors to get personalized advice on how to improve your writing. But even they can’t lead you constantly.

We prepared a set of professional tips on how to make your writing sound more solid and mature. They are quite simple (and free), but if you recall them the next time you start writing from scratch, your papers will become of much better quality.

1. Remember your audience

Writing is a very slow speaking process, in some sense. Any expert knows the key audience well and prepares for the communication accordingly. He conducts the research of who’ll read or listen to him. So even students understand after a few failed essays what their mentor expects to see their papers. The features of your audience are keys to the language that you should use in your assignment. The less you know about who will read your text, the less is the chance to guess all the specifics of a paper.

2. Follow the structure and logic of your text

The structure and logic of your writing are playing the same role as a tempo in the music. No one likes jumping over melodies, except jazzmen. Your essay will become more clear if you keep your structure relentlessly. After you finish your paragraph, review it and check if it’s connected with the previous one with the logical bounds and links to the same heading or subheading.

Professional writers can keep you in some kind of reading trance thanks to a tight chain of events on the slender structure. This is a top skill you definitely can’t buy for the money!

3. Small sentences work better

This rule comes from the speaking language. It’s easy to deal with short finalized ideas covered in a few words. The best way to write a great sentence is to delete all the glitter to leave only the main thought. The connected flow of such statements will create a feeling of your confidence and make you a more trustworthy writer.

4. Use reliable sources

When you quote someone or use some sources to present facts, check them twice. In the world of fakes, half-truths, made-up reviews, you have to be sure that you don’t double them to your audience. You can’t use any website or service that you want, only those that are responsible for their data, news, or research results. Do not copy the cheap, plagiarized papers that rewrite the same old book paragraph again and again. Choose reliable companies for assistance in your writing, if you need to, but avoid scammers.

5. Replace jargon with a plain English

This advice comes from professional writers of an online paper writing service called CustomWritings.com that’s popular in the USA. They have created tons of academic papers for the last 15 years, and the main thing that distinguishes newbie essay writers from experts is that the first ones try to put a lot of “smart” words in their lines, while the second category keeps everything simple and clear.

Be like a pro, avoid complex language.

6. Avoid value judgments

This is “bad” or that is “wrong”, they are “crazy,” or we’re “the best”—all these shallow words can’t hide that you don’t have any better facts to describe what you’re talking about. All value judgments are vague and will be covered with questions by your readers. Why do they have to believe you, just because you say that? Prove your words with facts and arguments, or avoid such evaluations in general.

7. Go beyond your first draft

Few variants of any paper should keep you company constantly while you’re mastering your topic. The first draft is always so raw, even if you think that it’s a masterpiece. Hold on, Shakespeare, just go to sleep and read it in the morning, and you’ll be shocked. When you finish your second draft, you can sew your text block more evenly and tightly. But even the third iteration is not always the last one.
If you have time, give yourself plenty of space and chances to write one topic from multiple points of view. You’ll get a lot of material to use and find inner connections that were unrevealed after you finish the first draft. Every time you create a draft, you practice, and it means that you’re growing. So never give up!

8. Proofread your writing

You can become a customer of one of the professional proofreading services. This is the simplest way to perfect your text. The editors and proofreaders might freak you out sometimes, but their work is irreplaceable for any writer who wants to reach mastery. These people will be as strict to your paper, as you never can be by yourself.

9. Do not try to brag

This is a very bad idea to add some compliments to the author directly in the text. Order yourself a pizza, but don’t try to show off in your essays. Remember the rules we’re all playing here: your audience is a king and your message, your main thought of a text, is a queen, and you’re somewhere in the shadow, while these two are meeting each other. There will be some other person who will treat you with a compliment if you’ll deserve it.

10. Don’t be afraid to joke

Everything could not be serious all the time, except for scientific papers, but even there a glimpse of a smile will make reading more interesting. The masterfully presented custom joke will flatter you as a writer. So give it a try to show how well you know your audience and how deep is your knowledge of the background.

So there you have it. Our advice can help you to take one step closer to becoming a writer of your dream. Yes, it’s only an online article, but these tricks might work when other ideas are drained. Or even if you just remind yourself of all the golden rules of written words—our work wasn’t a waste.

readmore

George Eliot - Mary Ann Evans 

George  Orwell - Eric Arthur Blair

Joseph Conrad - Jozef Teoder Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowsti

Lee - G.B. Shaw

O' Henry - William Sydney Porter


Full Name

D.H. Lawrence - David Herbert Lawrence 

E.M. Forster- Edward Morgan Forster

F.R. Leavis - Frank Raymond Leavis

G.B. Shaw - George Bernard Shaw

H.G. Wells- Herbert George Wells

J.M. Synge- John Millington Synge

O'Neill - Eugine O' Neill

P.B. Shelly - Percy Bysshe Shelley

S.T. Coleridge - Samuel Taylor Coleridge 

W.B. Yeats - William Butler Yeats

Pen Name and Full Name Of Authors

Literaturemini | November 18, 2021 | 0 comments

George Eliot - Mary Ann Evans 

George  Orwell - Eric Arthur Blair

Joseph Conrad - Jozef Teoder Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowsti

Lee - G.B. Shaw

O' Henry - William Sydney Porter


Full Name

D.H. Lawrence - David Herbert Lawrence 

E.M. Forster- Edward Morgan Forster

F.R. Leavis - Frank Raymond Leavis

G.B. Shaw - George Bernard Shaw

H.G. Wells- Herbert George Wells

J.M. Synge- John Millington Synge

O'Neill - Eugine O' Neill

P.B. Shelly - Percy Bysshe Shelley

S.T. Coleridge - Samuel Taylor Coleridge 

W.B. Yeats - William Butler Yeats

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It is very important to know about the fathers of different genres of English literature for different types of competitive exams starting from the shadows of English literature.  So simply given here.

Geoffrey Chaucer :

First major poet to write in English

Father of English Literature 

Father of (modern) English Poetry/Poem

William Shakespeare :

National  poet of England 

Nickname: the Swan of Avon

The greatest  dramatist  of all time

The greatest writer  in the English Literature 

The Bard, the Bard of Avon

Caedmon:

First/Earliest English poet

George Bernard Shaw:

Father of modern English Literature 

The greatest modern English Dramatist 

Edmund Spenser :

Poet of Poets

Lord Byron (George Gordon Byron):

Rebel Poet

National Hero of Greek

Percy Bysshe Shelly :

Poet of Skylark and Winds

Revolutionary Romantic Poet

John Keats:

Poet of Beauty 

Romantic Poet

Poet of sensuousness 

William Wordsworth:

Poet of National 

Lake Poet

Samuel  Taylor Coleridge :

Poet of supernaturalism 

Christopher Marlowe:

Father  of English Tragedy 

Venerable Bede:

Father of English History / English Learning 

John Milton:

Epic poet /Great Master of Verse

Jonathan Swift:

The most famous satirist in English literature 

John Donne:

Founder  of Metaphysical poetry/ Poet of Love

Sir Thomas Wyatt:

Father of English Sonnet

John Dryden:

Father of Modern English Criticism 

Alexander Pope:

Mock Heroic Poet

Jane Austen:

Anti-Romantic in the Romantic Age

Alfred the Great:

Founder of English Prose

John Wycliffe, Tyndale, Francis Bacon:

Father of English Prose

Edgar Allan Poe:

Father of English short story

Father of (modern) Detective story

Robert Browning :

Father of Dramatic Monologue 

Nicholas Udall:

First English comedy writer

Thomas kyd :

Father of English Revenge Tragedy 

Ben Jonson :

Father of Comedy of Humours

Jules Verne:

Father of Science Fiction

H.G Wells:

Father of English  Science Fiction 

Francis Bacon :

Father of English essay

Lindley Murray :

Father of English Grammar 

Rudyard Kipling :

First Nobel Prize winner in English literature 

Mark Twain:

Father of American Literature








The Father Of Various Branches Of English Literature

Literaturemini | November 09, 2021 | 0 comments

It is very important to know about the fathers of different genres of English literature for different types of competitive exams starting from the shadows of English literature.  So simply given here.

Geoffrey Chaucer :

First major poet to write in English

Father of English Literature 

Father of (modern) English Poetry/Poem

William Shakespeare :

National  poet of England 

Nickname: the Swan of Avon

The greatest  dramatist  of all time

The greatest writer  in the English Literature 

The Bard, the Bard of Avon

Caedmon:

First/Earliest English poet

George Bernard Shaw:

Father of modern English Literature 

The greatest modern English Dramatist 

Edmund Spenser :

Poet of Poets

Lord Byron (George Gordon Byron):

Rebel Poet

National Hero of Greek

Percy Bysshe Shelly :

Poet of Skylark and Winds

Revolutionary Romantic Poet

John Keats:

Poet of Beauty 

Romantic Poet

Poet of sensuousness 

William Wordsworth:

Poet of National 

Lake Poet

Samuel  Taylor Coleridge :

Poet of supernaturalism 

Christopher Marlowe:

Father  of English Tragedy 

Venerable Bede:

Father of English History / English Learning 

John Milton:

Epic poet /Great Master of Verse

Jonathan Swift:

The most famous satirist in English literature 

John Donne:

Founder  of Metaphysical poetry/ Poet of Love

Sir Thomas Wyatt:

Father of English Sonnet

John Dryden:

Father of Modern English Criticism 

Alexander Pope:

Mock Heroic Poet

Jane Austen:

Anti-Romantic in the Romantic Age

Alfred the Great:

Founder of English Prose

John Wycliffe, Tyndale, Francis Bacon:

Father of English Prose

Edgar Allan Poe:

Father of English short story

Father of (modern) Detective story

Robert Browning :

Father of Dramatic Monologue 

Nicholas Udall:

First English comedy writer

Thomas kyd :

Father of English Revenge Tragedy 

Ben Jonson :

Father of Comedy of Humours

Jules Verne:

Father of Science Fiction

H.G Wells:

Father of English  Science Fiction 

Francis Bacon :

Father of English essay

Lindley Murray :

Father of English Grammar 

Rudyard Kipling :

First Nobel Prize winner in English literature 

Mark Twain:

Father of American Literature








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Dylan Thomas is undoubtedly one of the leading modern poets in English literature. His poems contain some of the basic features of modernism. Though he was not directly related to modern literary movements like surrealism, expressionism or imagist movement, his poetry reflects many of the vital elements of those new trends. In the Fem Hill" his portrayal of the childhood symbolizes an inward journey a modern poet through the corridor of memory for a paradise far from of the decay and degeneration of the contemporary world. Both thematically and structurally this poem can claim to be the representative modern poem.

Modernism  involves a deliberate and radical break with the traditional bases of western culture. The traditional structures of society held by religion, morality and conventional values are being questioned in modern literature. Especially after the First World War man's faith in traditional society and institutions was totally jolted. T. S. Eliot has portrayed in his poems 'the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history'. Dylan Thomas has not been openly critical of his age. However, his poems convey the central features of the new type of poetry. Even in his treatment- of religion Dylan has brought out new ideas. For example, in the picture of childhood we find the religious connotation in the following lines: And the Sabbath rang slowly In the pebbles of the holy streams.

When Sunday came the boy heard the ringing of the church bells which mixed with the sound of the water flowed over the pebbles of the streams. The combination of church bells and streams imply that the divine glory mingled with the innocent joys of childhood made the childhood holier. This touch of religion is more pagan than Christian. Here we notice his attempt to create personal myths out of the old religious terms. Treatment of faith in this manner is an element of modernism.

Dylan Thomas is modern because of his poetic technique. In his 'Fern Hill' he has experimented with different forms, words and images.He gives newness to the much used phrases as in 'below a time", "happy as the grass was green' or 'all the sun long'. In the same way he gives new shape to the stanzas challenging all traditional stanza forms. In "Fem Hill" the stanzas have the shape of flying birds that imitates the flying imagination of the boy. All these are examples of experimentalism which is another feature of modernism.

Apparent obscurity is another feature of modern poetry. In fact, modern poems have so many levels of meanings that sometimes they appear almost incomprehensible. "Fern Hill" also seems obscure because of the elements of surrealism and personal fantasy. Here owls, Thomas gives a surrealistic description of child's fantasies which are unchained by the values of adulthood. The boy's fantasies about nights, night jars and horses presented in a way that seems obscure This is because Thomas takes his style near to the thinking of a child. Things exist only for 'him' and when he is unconscious they do not exist at all. Consequently, it has become obscure, one of the main features of modernism.

Still another feature of modernism is expressionism that we find in "Fern Hill". Expressionism is a movement or tendency that strives to express subjective feelings and emotions rather than to depict reality or nature objectively. In this poem Dylan Thomas has tried to present an emotional experience in its most compelling form. He is not concerned with reality as it appears but with its inner nature and with the emotions dormant in it. To achieve these ends, the childhood in "Fern Hill" is abundantly exaggerated, magnified, or otherwise altered in order to stress the emotional experience in its most intense and concentrated form. In this poem in true expressionistic manner the poet has brought out the uncommon vigour, energy, warmth and vitality of childhood,

As a modern poet Dylan Thomas has combined most of the basic features of modernism. In the 'Fern Hill' we find his finest craftsmanship in the blending of expressionism, experimental images. surrealism, creation of personal myths and unconventional word choice These modern elements have perfected his magic of poetic skill in the "Fern Hill".

Find out the elements of modernism in Thomas's "Fern Hill"

Green Land | June 20, 2021 | 0 comments

Dylan Thomas is undoubtedly one of the leading modern poets in English literature. His poems contain some of the basic features of modernism. Though he was not directly related to modern literary movements like surrealism, expressionism or imagist movement, his poetry reflects many of the vital elements of those new trends. In the Fem Hill" his portrayal of the childhood symbolizes an inward journey a modern poet through the corridor of memory for a paradise far from of the decay and degeneration of the contemporary world. Both thematically and structurally this poem can claim to be the representative modern poem.

Modernism  involves a deliberate and radical break with the traditional bases of western culture. The traditional structures of society held by religion, morality and conventional values are being questioned in modern literature. Especially after the First World War man's faith in traditional society and institutions was totally jolted. T. S. Eliot has portrayed in his poems 'the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history'. Dylan Thomas has not been openly critical of his age. However, his poems convey the central features of the new type of poetry. Even in his treatment- of religion Dylan has brought out new ideas. For example, in the picture of childhood we find the religious connotation in the following lines: And the Sabbath rang slowly In the pebbles of the holy streams.

When Sunday came the boy heard the ringing of the church bells which mixed with the sound of the water flowed over the pebbles of the streams. The combination of church bells and streams imply that the divine glory mingled with the innocent joys of childhood made the childhood holier. This touch of religion is more pagan than Christian. Here we notice his attempt to create personal myths out of the old religious terms. Treatment of faith in this manner is an element of modernism.

Dylan Thomas is modern because of his poetic technique. In his 'Fern Hill' he has experimented with different forms, words and images.He gives newness to the much used phrases as in 'below a time", "happy as the grass was green' or 'all the sun long'. In the same way he gives new shape to the stanzas challenging all traditional stanza forms. In "Fem Hill" the stanzas have the shape of flying birds that imitates the flying imagination of the boy. All these are examples of experimentalism which is another feature of modernism.

Apparent obscurity is another feature of modern poetry. In fact, modern poems have so many levels of meanings that sometimes they appear almost incomprehensible. "Fern Hill" also seems obscure because of the elements of surrealism and personal fantasy. Here owls, Thomas gives a surrealistic description of child's fantasies which are unchained by the values of adulthood. The boy's fantasies about nights, night jars and horses presented in a way that seems obscure This is because Thomas takes his style near to the thinking of a child. Things exist only for 'him' and when he is unconscious they do not exist at all. Consequently, it has become obscure, one of the main features of modernism.

Still another feature of modernism is expressionism that we find in "Fern Hill". Expressionism is a movement or tendency that strives to express subjective feelings and emotions rather than to depict reality or nature objectively. In this poem Dylan Thomas has tried to present an emotional experience in its most compelling form. He is not concerned with reality as it appears but with its inner nature and with the emotions dormant in it. To achieve these ends, the childhood in "Fern Hill" is abundantly exaggerated, magnified, or otherwise altered in order to stress the emotional experience in its most intense and concentrated form. In this poem in true expressionistic manner the poet has brought out the uncommon vigour, energy, warmth and vitality of childhood,

As a modern poet Dylan Thomas has combined most of the basic features of modernism. In the 'Fern Hill' we find his finest craftsmanship in the blending of expressionism, experimental images. surrealism, creation of personal myths and unconventional word choice These modern elements have perfected his magic of poetic skill in the "Fern Hill".

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Ted Hughes had been obsessed with animals from early years. Many of his famous poems are based on animals. "The Jaguar", "Pike", "The Horses", "The Bull Moses", "An Otter", "Thrushes" and "Crow" are a few of many of his poems dealing with animals. The poem, "Pike" is an excellent example of Hughes' gift for imagining and describing nature at her most violent and predatory shape. It seeks the root of primitive energy, which is violent, irrational and deadly. Hughes in this poem recognises the primordial violent energy that defies and threatens all kinds of subordination to rational consciousness. Here lies human interest in the poem. So, "Pike" is a fine poem representing Hughes' pre-occupation with animals, his recognition of the violent primitive energy and his art of relating an animal with the primordial natural force in man.The poet suggests the violent and deadly nature of the pike in the beginning of the poem. It opens with an objective detail of the fish:

Pike, three inches long, perfect, Pike in all parts, green tigering the gold.Killers from the egg: The malevolent aged grin.They dance...

The words "tigering", "Killers" "malevolent" and "grin" imply that the dance is a macabre celebration of timeless instinctive destructiveness. The first four stanzas present the primitive horror in the subject-creature, the pike, through a series of evocative noun phrases. The I-speaker appears in the fifth stanza and reinforces the violence and horror in the pike through three brief anecdotes.

The first reference is to three pikes kept in an aquarium. The strongest of them ate up the other two. The second reference is to "Two, six pounds each", which killed each other in the willow-herb. The third is a reference to the pikes of giant size living in an old pond. These pikes are the embodiment of the mysterious foreboding inherent in nature. The speaker's experiences from these three incidents not only reaffirm the horror of the killer-fish but also gradually intensify the violence and mystery in the heart of man and nature.

So, the speaker in "Pike" recognises the inseparable primitive energy in animals. He becomes aware that the primitive violence is the evil "otherness", the animality in man.

Explain that "Pike" deals with primitive energy

Green Land | June 20, 2021 | 0 comments

Ted Hughes had been obsessed with animals from early years. Many of his famous poems are based on animals. "The Jaguar", "Pike", "The Horses", "The Bull Moses", "An Otter", "Thrushes" and "Crow" are a few of many of his poems dealing with animals. The poem, "Pike" is an excellent example of Hughes' gift for imagining and describing nature at her most violent and predatory shape. It seeks the root of primitive energy, which is violent, irrational and deadly. Hughes in this poem recognises the primordial violent energy that defies and threatens all kinds of subordination to rational consciousness. Here lies human interest in the poem. So, "Pike" is a fine poem representing Hughes' pre-occupation with animals, his recognition of the violent primitive energy and his art of relating an animal with the primordial natural force in man.The poet suggests the violent and deadly nature of the pike in the beginning of the poem. It opens with an objective detail of the fish:

Pike, three inches long, perfect, Pike in all parts, green tigering the gold.Killers from the egg: The malevolent aged grin.They dance...

The words "tigering", "Killers" "malevolent" and "grin" imply that the dance is a macabre celebration of timeless instinctive destructiveness. The first four stanzas present the primitive horror in the subject-creature, the pike, through a series of evocative noun phrases. The I-speaker appears in the fifth stanza and reinforces the violence and horror in the pike through three brief anecdotes.

The first reference is to three pikes kept in an aquarium. The strongest of them ate up the other two. The second reference is to "Two, six pounds each", which killed each other in the willow-herb. The third is a reference to the pikes of giant size living in an old pond. These pikes are the embodiment of the mysterious foreboding inherent in nature. The speaker's experiences from these three incidents not only reaffirm the horror of the killer-fish but also gradually intensify the violence and mystery in the heart of man and nature.

So, the speaker in "Pike" recognises the inseparable primitive energy in animals. He becomes aware that the primitive violence is the evil "otherness", the animality in man.

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