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What is Language?  


Language is the principal method of Community used by human beings. Languages consist of spoken sound in spoken languages and written symbols that is used for the written languages. Language is the conventional speaking system through which we can communicate with others and express our ideas, feelings and information. Language is the most important aspect of our life cause it allows us to create cultural ties, friendship, relationships by spreading our thoughts and ideas.


Properties of language :


There are basically six properties of language that makes the human language different from the animals language. These properties are some kind of features which are unlikely to be found in the languages of other living creatures. Here, the properties are given below.


1. Displacement :


This properties allows us to communicate about those events that are currently absent from the environment ( like I did the work yesterday, what is your plan for this vacation or I will get the job in the next month). It allows us to make up story and think about the both the past and the future.


2. Productivity :


It resembles the infinity of unique words / sentences and the combination of word. It is linked to the fact that the potential number of utterances in human languages are infinite. 


3. Arbitrariness :


It basically presents that no naturela connection between a linguistic form and its meaning is exist. That means the words or symbols used to make the right perception about the objects are not inherently interconnected to those objects they symbolize. 


4. Discreteness :


This properly ensures that the sounds used in languages are meaningfully distinct and those sounds are considered our own with our distinct meaning. 


5. Duality :


At one stage of language we find two kinds of simultaneity of language, one is discrete sounds and another is discrete meanings. 


We can combine the letters l,a,k and e in two different ways : lake and leak. These two word means two different meanings even though they are comprised of the same four sounds. 


6. Cultural Transmission :


Language is learnt through culture with other speakers and not from parental genes.


Characteristics of Language :


There are basically 10 characteristics of language. Some of the are major characteristics and some of them are minor characteristics. Again some of them are relatable with the properties of language that mentioned before.


Here, the characteristics are given below:


1. Language is a social phenomenon :


Language should be considered as a social phenomenon considering It's uses, importance and It's unique value. Language exists in our human society and playing a big role of nursing and developing culture and establishing good relation between human beings. 


2. Language is the main means of human communication :


It is a universal acknowledgement that language is the main means of communication among human beings. Although, there are also some means of communication is exists among us like nods, winks, mathematical symbols, sirens, maps, codes, horns, etc. But all of these commutation system is too much limited to language. They are not as appropriate as language is.


3.Language is basically vocal:


Language is primarily made up of vocal sounds which is produced from the vocal cord, an articulatory organism of human body. Initially, it must have come out as sounds only and writing mustly come much later. During the life time of a human being, he/she must speaks much than he/she writes.


4. Language is unique, complex,creative and modifiable :


Language is a unique substance in the planet. There is no other talking species in the world without human being. Human being has their own way to communicate. Again, each language is unique in its own sense. Though, there are similarities among languages, each language has It's own particularities. Language is changing in each and every moments and new languages are begin created with times. The old English language is not same as the modern English is. So, language is also modifiable. 


5. Prolapse :


Man can talk about situations, stories, certainty without the presence of that situation & environment. Man can talk about the past or about the future. Language allows us to think on that way. We can talk in absence of someone with the mean of language. 


Beside these major characteristics, some minor minor characteristics are also given below :


6. Productivity :


Whatever we create is productivity. Speaking itself is also a type of productivity. We can talk about topics that are displaced or we can talk about the things that may be present or not, or talk about anything in past, present or future. We can make story that doesn’t exist.


7. Language is Social: 


Language is a set of conventional communicative symbols used by humans for communication in the society. In this sense, language is a possession of a social group, comprising an indispensable set of rules which permits its members to share thoughts to each other, to communicate with each other, to co-operate with each other; it is a social institution.Moreover,  Language exists in society; it is the means of nourishing and developing culture and establishing human relations.


8. Language is systematic: 


In spite of being symbolic, the symbols of language are arranged in specific systems. All languages have their individual & unique arrangement of plans. Each language is an arrangement of systems. 


9. Language is a symbolic system: 


Language is signified as a symbolic system. It consists of different types of symbol basing on sound for concepts, things, ideas, thoughts,  object etc. Language has specific  sounds and words according to their symbols.


The words in a language are not just patterns or images but symbols that has the meaning. The core value of a language sometimes funded on the true explanation of these symbols.


10. Language is non - instinctive and Conventional:


No language was made in a single day. Language is the result of advancement of culture and tradition. Every age transmits this tradition on to the following.


Like every single human organization or system, languages may also be changed and pass on, developed,modified  and extended. So, we can consider language as non-instinctive because naturally it is acquired and modified by us.

Characteristics of language

What is language? Properties & Characteristics of language.

Literaturemini | January 23, 2021 | 0 comments

What is Language?  


Language is the principal method of Community used by human beings. Languages consist of spoken sound in spoken languages and written symbols that is used for the written languages. Language is the conventional speaking system through which we can communicate with others and express our ideas, feelings and information. Language is the most important aspect of our life cause it allows us to create cultural ties, friendship, relationships by spreading our thoughts and ideas.


Properties of language :


There are basically six properties of language that makes the human language different from the animals language. These properties are some kind of features which are unlikely to be found in the languages of other living creatures. Here, the properties are given below.


1. Displacement :


This properties allows us to communicate about those events that are currently absent from the environment ( like I did the work yesterday, what is your plan for this vacation or I will get the job in the next month). It allows us to make up story and think about the both the past and the future.


2. Productivity :


It resembles the infinity of unique words / sentences and the combination of word. It is linked to the fact that the potential number of utterances in human languages are infinite. 


3. Arbitrariness :


It basically presents that no naturela connection between a linguistic form and its meaning is exist. That means the words or symbols used to make the right perception about the objects are not inherently interconnected to those objects they symbolize. 


4. Discreteness :


This properly ensures that the sounds used in languages are meaningfully distinct and those sounds are considered our own with our distinct meaning. 


5. Duality :


At one stage of language we find two kinds of simultaneity of language, one is discrete sounds and another is discrete meanings. 


We can combine the letters l,a,k and e in two different ways : lake and leak. These two word means two different meanings even though they are comprised of the same four sounds. 


6. Cultural Transmission :


Language is learnt through culture with other speakers and not from parental genes.


Characteristics of Language :


There are basically 10 characteristics of language. Some of the are major characteristics and some of them are minor characteristics. Again some of them are relatable with the properties of language that mentioned before.


Here, the characteristics are given below:


1. Language is a social phenomenon :


Language should be considered as a social phenomenon considering It's uses, importance and It's unique value. Language exists in our human society and playing a big role of nursing and developing culture and establishing good relation between human beings. 


2. Language is the main means of human communication :


It is a universal acknowledgement that language is the main means of communication among human beings. Although, there are also some means of communication is exists among us like nods, winks, mathematical symbols, sirens, maps, codes, horns, etc. But all of these commutation system is too much limited to language. They are not as appropriate as language is.


3.Language is basically vocal:


Language is primarily made up of vocal sounds which is produced from the vocal cord, an articulatory organism of human body. Initially, it must have come out as sounds only and writing mustly come much later. During the life time of a human being, he/she must speaks much than he/she writes.


4. Language is unique, complex,creative and modifiable :


Language is a unique substance in the planet. There is no other talking species in the world without human being. Human being has their own way to communicate. Again, each language is unique in its own sense. Though, there are similarities among languages, each language has It's own particularities. Language is changing in each and every moments and new languages are begin created with times. The old English language is not same as the modern English is. So, language is also modifiable. 


5. Prolapse :


Man can talk about situations, stories, certainty without the presence of that situation & environment. Man can talk about the past or about the future. Language allows us to think on that way. We can talk in absence of someone with the mean of language. 


Beside these major characteristics, some minor minor characteristics are also given below :


6. Productivity :


Whatever we create is productivity. Speaking itself is also a type of productivity. We can talk about topics that are displaced or we can talk about the things that may be present or not, or talk about anything in past, present or future. We can make story that doesn’t exist.


7. Language is Social: 


Language is a set of conventional communicative symbols used by humans for communication in the society. In this sense, language is a possession of a social group, comprising an indispensable set of rules which permits its members to share thoughts to each other, to communicate with each other, to co-operate with each other; it is a social institution.Moreover,  Language exists in society; it is the means of nourishing and developing culture and establishing human relations.


8. Language is systematic: 


In spite of being symbolic, the symbols of language are arranged in specific systems. All languages have their individual & unique arrangement of plans. Each language is an arrangement of systems. 


9. Language is a symbolic system: 


Language is signified as a symbolic system. It consists of different types of symbol basing on sound for concepts, things, ideas, thoughts,  object etc. Language has specific  sounds and words according to their symbols.


The words in a language are not just patterns or images but symbols that has the meaning. The core value of a language sometimes funded on the true explanation of these symbols.


10. Language is non - instinctive and Conventional:


No language was made in a single day. Language is the result of advancement of culture and tradition. Every age transmits this tradition on to the following.


Like every single human organization or system, languages may also be changed and pass on, developed,modified  and extended. So, we can consider language as non-instinctive because naturally it is acquired and modified by us.

Characteristics of language

readmore

English is an international language & is the leading language of international discourse in todays world. English is basically a west Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England. English had started spreading  worldwide since the 17th century because of English empowerment. Around 350 languages have entire English in their languages like French, Spanish and Russian.

Top universities for literature

One can know the evolution of English language through English literature. By reading literature one can know the changes of English from a heavily infected Germany language. Besides the development of writing styles have also been seen through the literature. Literature is rooted in English language. So, both the English language and English literature are closely interconnected.


English literature is one of the most popular majors in universities in worldwide. Now discuss about top universities for English literature.    A huge amount of students are enrolling every year due to it's enhancing graduation opportunities and It's deverse nature. English literature focuses mainly on analysis, debate and critical theoretical analysis on novels,poems or other literary works.


There are 8 periods of English literature.


1.The old English literature (450-1066 christian era).

2.The middle English literature (1066-1500 c.c).

3.The English Renaissance (1500-1660 c.c).

4.The restoration age(1660-1700 c.c).

5.The 18th century.

6.Romanticism (1798-1837 c.c).

7.Victorian literature (1837-1901 c.c).

8.The 20th century.


Geoffrey Chaucer is called the father of English literature. He was born in london in 1340.He was an author of English & philosopher as well.


Nowadays, English literature is one of the best subject to study in and valuable as well.As a student, English literature provides you a strong grasp of the English language and in professional English.


Here we have enlisted some most popular universities all over the world.


The top universities are analysis  very critically for you to make it easier to make decision.


1. University of Oxford 


The University of Oxford is one of the oldest and leading university in the world. It is the 5th ranked University all over the world at present. The University of Oxford ensures you to have the best environment and facilities to complete your degree on English literature. There are two seasons for admission. It offers scholarship for the students come from overseas.


Here are some admission criteria of University of Oxford given below:


Course for English literature :BA

Duration of course: 3 years.

Admission test type: written.

Total courses : 05

Requirements:

A-level:AAA

Fees :

Home(UK, Republic of Ireland) - £9,250

Overseas :£31,230

Scholarship :available.



2. University of Cambridge 


Cambridge University is basically a colligate research University located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. This University is ranked 7th worldwide and is one of the best university to have graduation from English literature. There are two types of admission offered by the varsity. The faculty of English was founded in 1919 in this university. So, It's the one you should look at to obtain your graduation from.


Admission criteria :


Admission type:

Post graduate admission & under graduate admission.


Requirements :

A level: A*AA.

IB:40-42 points.

Age required :21 or over.

IELAT is required as well.


Course duration : 3 years.


Cost : £22,227 approximately. (For overseas, the tuition fee will be payable 50% of the full tuition fee).


3. Harvard University 


Harvard University is renowned mostly as a language research University worldwide whereas English literature is considered as a major course.This is ranked 2nd globally.This university will provide you world class researchers and writers and a part of the department which is highly ranked worldwide for It's research.


Admission criteria :


Types of degree:

BA(single honours).

BA(combined honours).


Duration of course: 3 years.


Costs: £13,474 (for foreigners).

£9,250 (for UK).


Scholarship :


Type A : £2,500  award for Bangladesh,Brazil, Pakistan, Colombia, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Ghana.


Type B : £1,500 award for Egypt, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Morocco, Taiwan, Turkey.


Requirements : At least second class degree from any recognised university.


4. Stanford University 


Stanford University is a private research University located in California, United States. Stanford University is ranked 3rd worldwide. Stanford University is specially renowned by It's major educational publications and is one of the top fundraising University. It is a private institution and highly costly. But it will ensure you a strong basement on English literature. This University is also highly recommended.


Admission criteria :


Course type: BA (English).


Course duration : 3 years.


Scholarship :available.


5. University of Toronto 


The University of Toronto is a public research University which is also a globally ranked University located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The University of Toronto is ranked 17th worldwide. English literature is a minor course in this university.


Admission criteria :


Course type : BA hons.


Programme : English literature.


Requirements : Ontario Secondary School Diploma.


Duration of course : 3 years.


6. University of Melbourne 


The University of Melbourne is basically famous for public research founded in 1853.This University is ranked 31st worldwide and 1st in Australia.


Admission criteria :


Duration of course : 3 years (BA in English)


Requirements :


Entry score 85.00 for 2021 admission suggested. The lowest score was 76.05 in 2020.


A score of at least 25 in English literature or at least 30 in EAL is also required as well.


Fees : £33,824

Scholarship :available.


7. University of Hong Kong 


The University of Hong Kong was founded in 1911 and is famous for research and is tge oldest tertiary Institution in Hong Kong.


Admission criteria :


Course type: Master’s of Arts (English literature)


Category :

2021-2022 full time.

2021-2023 part-time.


Tuition fee :

42,000 HK$ ( local)

1,71,000 HK$(non local)


8. University of Texas, Austin 


The University of Texas is a public institution that was founded in 1883 located in Austin is ranked 44th worldwide. It has a huge seats for enrollment of about 50,000. So, if should be one of the best choices for the applicants to complete their higher education. English literature is a major course in this university.


Admission criteria :


Tuition fee:

$11,100(in state)

$39,322(out of state)


Application fee :75$


Requirement :

TOEFL(internet based).

IELTS:required.

SAT:required.

ACT:required.


9. University of Tokyo 


The University of Tokyo was established as the first imperial University and one of the Japan's most old and historical University. It was established in 1877.This University is ranked 25th worldwide.


Admission criteria :


Semester season :

Spring semester (April - late July) 

Autumn semester (September -January)


Requirement :


Minimum cumulative GPA of 4.5


Tuition fee :

£3,520 for undergraduate.


$3,000-20,000 approximately for international students.


£1,800 for admission fee.


10. University of Delhi 


The University of Delhi is a collegiate public research University located in New Delhi, India which was established in 1922.This University is ranked 474th worldwide. It is one of the best university in South Asia. This University offers a candidate to obtain his/her graduation at very low cost and with good educational environment.


Admission criteria :


Course offered : M.A English.


Fees:3,000-40,000 rupees for M.A


Course duration :2 years.


Scholarship available for overseas.


Here some of the also top university are given below-


11. University of California.


12. University of Chicago.


13. University of Melbourne.


14. University of British Colombia.


15. University of Sydney.


16. University of Manchester.


17. National University of Singapore.


18. The University of Auckland.


19. Boston University.


20. City University of HongKong.


21. Korea University.


22. National Taiwan University.


23. The Ohio State University.


24.Seoul National University.


25.The Chinese University of HongKong.


26.University of Notre Dame.


27.University of Zurich.


28.Indiana University.


29.Tsinghua University.


30.Australian National University.


31.Andhra University.


32.Amity University.


33.University of Dhaka.


34.Fudan University.


35.Shanghai Jiao Tong University.


36.University of Munich.


38.Universiti Malaya,Malaysia.


39.National Taiwan University.


40.Lomonosov Moscow State University.


41. Indian University of Technology Ropar.


42. Osaka University.


43. Amrita Vishwa Vidhyapeetham.


44. University of Lahore.


45. English and Foreign Language University, Hyderabad 


46. Noakhali Science and Technology University (Nstu) , Noakhali     


Top Universities For English Literature

Literaturemini | December 27, 2020 | 0 comments

English is an international language & is the leading language of international discourse in todays world. English is basically a west Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England. English had started spreading  worldwide since the 17th century because of English empowerment. Around 350 languages have entire English in their languages like French, Spanish and Russian.

Top universities for literature

One can know the evolution of English language through English literature. By reading literature one can know the changes of English from a heavily infected Germany language. Besides the development of writing styles have also been seen through the literature. Literature is rooted in English language. So, both the English language and English literature are closely interconnected.


English literature is one of the most popular majors in universities in worldwide. Now discuss about top universities for English literature.    A huge amount of students are enrolling every year due to it's enhancing graduation opportunities and It's deverse nature. English literature focuses mainly on analysis, debate and critical theoretical analysis on novels,poems or other literary works.


There are 8 periods of English literature.


1.The old English literature (450-1066 christian era).

2.The middle English literature (1066-1500 c.c).

3.The English Renaissance (1500-1660 c.c).

4.The restoration age(1660-1700 c.c).

5.The 18th century.

6.Romanticism (1798-1837 c.c).

7.Victorian literature (1837-1901 c.c).

8.The 20th century.


Geoffrey Chaucer is called the father of English literature. He was born in london in 1340.He was an author of English & philosopher as well.


Nowadays, English literature is one of the best subject to study in and valuable as well.As a student, English literature provides you a strong grasp of the English language and in professional English.


Here we have enlisted some most popular universities all over the world.


The top universities are analysis  very critically for you to make it easier to make decision.


1. University of Oxford 


The University of Oxford is one of the oldest and leading university in the world. It is the 5th ranked University all over the world at present. The University of Oxford ensures you to have the best environment and facilities to complete your degree on English literature. There are two seasons for admission. It offers scholarship for the students come from overseas.


Here are some admission criteria of University of Oxford given below:


Course for English literature :BA

Duration of course: 3 years.

Admission test type: written.

Total courses : 05

Requirements:

A-level:AAA

Fees :

Home(UK, Republic of Ireland) - £9,250

Overseas :£31,230

Scholarship :available.



2. University of Cambridge 


Cambridge University is basically a colligate research University located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. This University is ranked 7th worldwide and is one of the best university to have graduation from English literature. There are two types of admission offered by the varsity. The faculty of English was founded in 1919 in this university. So, It's the one you should look at to obtain your graduation from.


Admission criteria :


Admission type:

Post graduate admission & under graduate admission.


Requirements :

A level: A*AA.

IB:40-42 points.

Age required :21 or over.

IELAT is required as well.


Course duration : 3 years.


Cost : £22,227 approximately. (For overseas, the tuition fee will be payable 50% of the full tuition fee).


3. Harvard University 


Harvard University is renowned mostly as a language research University worldwide whereas English literature is considered as a major course.This is ranked 2nd globally.This university will provide you world class researchers and writers and a part of the department which is highly ranked worldwide for It's research.


Admission criteria :


Types of degree:

BA(single honours).

BA(combined honours).


Duration of course: 3 years.


Costs: £13,474 (for foreigners).

£9,250 (for UK).


Scholarship :


Type A : £2,500  award for Bangladesh,Brazil, Pakistan, Colombia, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Ghana.


Type B : £1,500 award for Egypt, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Malaysia, Morocco, Taiwan, Turkey.


Requirements : At least second class degree from any recognised university.


4. Stanford University 


Stanford University is a private research University located in California, United States. Stanford University is ranked 3rd worldwide. Stanford University is specially renowned by It's major educational publications and is one of the top fundraising University. It is a private institution and highly costly. But it will ensure you a strong basement on English literature. This University is also highly recommended.


Admission criteria :


Course type: BA (English).


Course duration : 3 years.


Scholarship :available.


5. University of Toronto 


The University of Toronto is a public research University which is also a globally ranked University located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The University of Toronto is ranked 17th worldwide. English literature is a minor course in this university.


Admission criteria :


Course type : BA hons.


Programme : English literature.


Requirements : Ontario Secondary School Diploma.


Duration of course : 3 years.


6. University of Melbourne 


The University of Melbourne is basically famous for public research founded in 1853.This University is ranked 31st worldwide and 1st in Australia.


Admission criteria :


Duration of course : 3 years (BA in English)


Requirements :


Entry score 85.00 for 2021 admission suggested. The lowest score was 76.05 in 2020.


A score of at least 25 in English literature or at least 30 in EAL is also required as well.


Fees : £33,824

Scholarship :available.


7. University of Hong Kong 


The University of Hong Kong was founded in 1911 and is famous for research and is tge oldest tertiary Institution in Hong Kong.


Admission criteria :


Course type: Master’s of Arts (English literature)


Category :

2021-2022 full time.

2021-2023 part-time.


Tuition fee :

42,000 HK$ ( local)

1,71,000 HK$(non local)


8. University of Texas, Austin 


The University of Texas is a public institution that was founded in 1883 located in Austin is ranked 44th worldwide. It has a huge seats for enrollment of about 50,000. So, if should be one of the best choices for the applicants to complete their higher education. English literature is a major course in this university.


Admission criteria :


Tuition fee:

$11,100(in state)

$39,322(out of state)


Application fee :75$


Requirement :

TOEFL(internet based).

IELTS:required.

SAT:required.

ACT:required.


9. University of Tokyo 


The University of Tokyo was established as the first imperial University and one of the Japan's most old and historical University. It was established in 1877.This University is ranked 25th worldwide.


Admission criteria :


Semester season :

Spring semester (April - late July) 

Autumn semester (September -January)


Requirement :


Minimum cumulative GPA of 4.5


Tuition fee :

£3,520 for undergraduate.


$3,000-20,000 approximately for international students.


£1,800 for admission fee.


10. University of Delhi 


The University of Delhi is a collegiate public research University located in New Delhi, India which was established in 1922.This University is ranked 474th worldwide. It is one of the best university in South Asia. This University offers a candidate to obtain his/her graduation at very low cost and with good educational environment.


Admission criteria :


Course offered : M.A English.


Fees:3,000-40,000 rupees for M.A


Course duration :2 years.


Scholarship available for overseas.


Here some of the also top university are given below-


11. University of California.


12. University of Chicago.


13. University of Melbourne.


14. University of British Colombia.


15. University of Sydney.


16. University of Manchester.


17. National University of Singapore.


18. The University of Auckland.


19. Boston University.


20. City University of HongKong.


21. Korea University.


22. National Taiwan University.


23. The Ohio State University.


24.Seoul National University.


25.The Chinese University of HongKong.


26.University of Notre Dame.


27.University of Zurich.


28.Indiana University.


29.Tsinghua University.


30.Australian National University.


31.Andhra University.


32.Amity University.


33.University of Dhaka.


34.Fudan University.


35.Shanghai Jiao Tong University.


36.University of Munich.


38.Universiti Malaya,Malaysia.


39.National Taiwan University.


40.Lomonosov Moscow State University.


41. Indian University of Technology Ropar.


42. Osaka University.


43. Amrita Vishwa Vidhyapeetham.


44. University of Lahore.


45. English and Foreign Language University, Hyderabad 


46. Noakhali Science and Technology University (Nstu) , Noakhali     


readmore

What is Virus?

Virus is a micro organism that is smaller than a bacterium germs grows in living cell.Virus typically contains a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material. Virus is capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells.


There are some characteristics of virus.

 

1.They are non living structure.


2.They are non cellular. 


3.They contains capside.


4.They has acid core containing DNA or RNA or both.


CORONA VIRUS:


Corona virus is a type of common virus that is named as Covid-19 basing on It's characteristics and It's circumvolution. 


#CO- is for Corona, 

#VI- is for virus and 

#D- stands for disease. 


There are seven types of human Corona Viruses that have been identified till now.


*MERS - CoV (the beta corona virus causes middle east respiratory syndrome)


*SARS - CoV (the beta corona virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome) are two of the examples.


2019 Novel Corona Virus (2019-nCoV) is the new corona virus outbreak that began in Wuhan,China.


It is said that most people will be infected with at least one type of corona virus in their lifetime. These types of virus spreads through personal contact. By coughing and sneezing, these virus can be spreaded by the air also.


VACCINE:


A vaccine stimulates ones immune system that helps to produce antibody that helps to protect certain diseases. Vaccine contains microbes that can be a dead version or weakened version.After getting vaccinated one can develop immunity to that specific disease without having to get the disease. So that, vaccines are such powerful medicine. 


There are three basic types of vaccines. 


1.Toxoid vaccines. 

2.Inactive vaccines. 

3.Live - attenuated vaccines.


Here, some types of vaccine forms are also given below:


*AVA and AVP :- Sub unit vaccine containing three antigens.


*Live attenuated vaccines :-Generally used as veterinary care.


*Polysaccharide :- Protein type.


*Inactivated viral vaccine. 


*Recombinant subunit vaccine. 


*Injection :- As activated or inactivated virus vaccine. 


*Nasal Spray.


*Polysaccharide Vaccine. 


*OPV :- Attenuated viral vaccine.


*Injectable and Oral.


*Toxoid Vaccine :- Toxic can be controverted into toxoid by formaldehyde. 


How is a vaccine created? 


Vaccines are made by taking a small amount of disease germ of virus or bacteria and weakening them so that they can't multiply the amount or can't  produce themselves. Vaccines does not let the germs to cause diseases because before that, our body can make a strong immune system against those germs.


Development of a new vaccine :


1. Exploratory Stage:


The exploratory stage consists of basic lab research and the identification of antigens which improves the body immune system. This stage takes 2-4 years generally to be completed.If the exploratory stage is seems to be promising, the test moves on to the next stage.


2. Pre-clinical Stage:

This is a stage of research that begins after the green signal of the exploratory stage. This is the stage in which the drug candidate maybe first tested in laboratory animals. 


3. Clinical Development :


There are five phases of clinical trials. 


*Phase 0: This is the first clinical trial done among people.In this trial a very small dose of vaccine is given to 10 - 15 people.


*Phase 1: Phase 1 trial is to test the drugs safety.In this phase,doctors aim to find out the best dose of new drug.In the phase 1 trial,the drug will be tested in a small group of patient of about 15 to 30.Doctor gives a very small dosages and increase the amount of dosages among the patients untill side effects become too severe.


*Phase 2: In the phase 2 trial,some new combinations of drug are tested among a larger amount of patient than the phase 1 trial.The new drug is rarely simillar to the current drug that is used.If the new drug shows promising work,it should be tested in the next trial.


*Phase 3: In this phase,the trial compares the new drug and the current drug and assess which drug works better.Side effects are monitored closely in this trial.This trial enrolls 150 to 1,000 patients.


*Phase 4: In this phase,the vaccine is tested in several thousands of people. This trial test the vaccines which gets approval. Doctors can learn more about the drugs throug this trial.


4. Regulatory Review & Approval:

In this stage,all the approval including licence, registration, marketing, price are confirmed by the authority or agency or department or states or the government of the country for the process of manufacturing. 


5. Quality Control :

In this process,a company or business ensures the product quality and the improvements of the product.


According to a survey, a vaccine costs 100 crore $ for these stages and only 13 vaccines get approval from FDA out of 100 vaccines. It's a big reason for what companies are afraid of creating vaccines. 


CORONA VACCINE 

Till now, more than 60 vaccines have been clinically tested and about 43 vaccines have passed the phase 1. And 20 of them passed the phase 2 clinical trial and 18 of them successfully passed the thired phase of clinical trial.Many countries are trying to make vaccine and are going through the process of clinical trial.


At present,6 vaccines got the approval from FDA for early and limited use.This six vaccines should be tested for any emergency situation. 


On the other hand, two vaccines recently got the approval from FDA for full and complete use.They are not tested yet.Among them, FDA approved the Modern's  vaccine for emergency use.

The matter of sorrow is that, the first ever vaccine which is tested after the approval from FDA is proved harmful for human being is abandoned after the test.


Here some of the pending vaccines which passed clinical trials are given below.


*Company name: BIONTECH

Vaccine name: BNT162b2

Efficiency : Almost 95%

Type: Injection 

Dose quantity : 2


*Company name:MODERNA

Vaccine name: mRNA-1273

Efficiency : 94.5%

Dose quantity : 2

Type: Injection 


*Company name: ZYDUS

Vaccine name : ZyCoV-D

Efficiency : not identified 

Dose quantity : 3

Type :Injection 


*Company name: TaKaRa

Name: AG0302-COVID19

Efficiency : Unknown 

Dose quantity :2

Type: Injection. 


Note:

As there is no vaccine identified safe and efficient till now, there's no surety of vaccine should be invented in recent time.Only our self precaution cane save us from this CORONA pandemic. Social distancing is the best solution to remain safe from this disease. 6 feet distancing should be maintained for our own sake. We should sanitize our hand after touching something and should wash our hand by soup for 20 seconds before eating anything. 


A survey says that, wearing mask can give us 80% safety from this disease. We all should wear mask and should follow all the health rules to remain safe from this epidemic. 


Corona virus & Corona vaccine

Literaturemini | December 21, 2020 | 1comments

What is Virus?

Virus is a micro organism that is smaller than a bacterium germs grows in living cell.Virus typically contains a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material. Virus is capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells.


There are some characteristics of virus.

 

1.They are non living structure.


2.They are non cellular. 


3.They contains capside.


4.They has acid core containing DNA or RNA or both.


CORONA VIRUS:


Corona virus is a type of common virus that is named as Covid-19 basing on It's characteristics and It's circumvolution. 


#CO- is for Corona, 

#VI- is for virus and 

#D- stands for disease. 


There are seven types of human Corona Viruses that have been identified till now.


*MERS - CoV (the beta corona virus causes middle east respiratory syndrome)


*SARS - CoV (the beta corona virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome) are two of the examples.


2019 Novel Corona Virus (2019-nCoV) is the new corona virus outbreak that began in Wuhan,China.


It is said that most people will be infected with at least one type of corona virus in their lifetime. These types of virus spreads through personal contact. By coughing and sneezing, these virus can be spreaded by the air also.


VACCINE:


A vaccine stimulates ones immune system that helps to produce antibody that helps to protect certain diseases. Vaccine contains microbes that can be a dead version or weakened version.After getting vaccinated one can develop immunity to that specific disease without having to get the disease. So that, vaccines are such powerful medicine. 


There are three basic types of vaccines. 


1.Toxoid vaccines. 

2.Inactive vaccines. 

3.Live - attenuated vaccines.


Here, some types of vaccine forms are also given below:


*AVA and AVP :- Sub unit vaccine containing three antigens.


*Live attenuated vaccines :-Generally used as veterinary care.


*Polysaccharide :- Protein type.


*Inactivated viral vaccine. 


*Recombinant subunit vaccine. 


*Injection :- As activated or inactivated virus vaccine. 


*Nasal Spray.


*Polysaccharide Vaccine. 


*OPV :- Attenuated viral vaccine.


*Injectable and Oral.


*Toxoid Vaccine :- Toxic can be controverted into toxoid by formaldehyde. 


How is a vaccine created? 


Vaccines are made by taking a small amount of disease germ of virus or bacteria and weakening them so that they can't multiply the amount or can't  produce themselves. Vaccines does not let the germs to cause diseases because before that, our body can make a strong immune system against those germs.


Development of a new vaccine :


1. Exploratory Stage:


The exploratory stage consists of basic lab research and the identification of antigens which improves the body immune system. This stage takes 2-4 years generally to be completed.If the exploratory stage is seems to be promising, the test moves on to the next stage.


2. Pre-clinical Stage:

This is a stage of research that begins after the green signal of the exploratory stage. This is the stage in which the drug candidate maybe first tested in laboratory animals. 


3. Clinical Development :


There are five phases of clinical trials. 


*Phase 0: This is the first clinical trial done among people.In this trial a very small dose of vaccine is given to 10 - 15 people.


*Phase 1: Phase 1 trial is to test the drugs safety.In this phase,doctors aim to find out the best dose of new drug.In the phase 1 trial,the drug will be tested in a small group of patient of about 15 to 30.Doctor gives a very small dosages and increase the amount of dosages among the patients untill side effects become too severe.


*Phase 2: In the phase 2 trial,some new combinations of drug are tested among a larger amount of patient than the phase 1 trial.The new drug is rarely simillar to the current drug that is used.If the new drug shows promising work,it should be tested in the next trial.


*Phase 3: In this phase,the trial compares the new drug and the current drug and assess which drug works better.Side effects are monitored closely in this trial.This trial enrolls 150 to 1,000 patients.


*Phase 4: In this phase,the vaccine is tested in several thousands of people. This trial test the vaccines which gets approval. Doctors can learn more about the drugs throug this trial.


4. Regulatory Review & Approval:

In this stage,all the approval including licence, registration, marketing, price are confirmed by the authority or agency or department or states or the government of the country for the process of manufacturing. 


5. Quality Control :

In this process,a company or business ensures the product quality and the improvements of the product.


According to a survey, a vaccine costs 100 crore $ for these stages and only 13 vaccines get approval from FDA out of 100 vaccines. It's a big reason for what companies are afraid of creating vaccines. 


CORONA VACCINE 

Till now, more than 60 vaccines have been clinically tested and about 43 vaccines have passed the phase 1. And 20 of them passed the phase 2 clinical trial and 18 of them successfully passed the thired phase of clinical trial.Many countries are trying to make vaccine and are going through the process of clinical trial.


At present,6 vaccines got the approval from FDA for early and limited use.This six vaccines should be tested for any emergency situation. 


On the other hand, two vaccines recently got the approval from FDA for full and complete use.They are not tested yet.Among them, FDA approved the Modern's  vaccine for emergency use.

The matter of sorrow is that, the first ever vaccine which is tested after the approval from FDA is proved harmful for human being is abandoned after the test.


Here some of the pending vaccines which passed clinical trials are given below.


*Company name: BIONTECH

Vaccine name: BNT162b2

Efficiency : Almost 95%

Type: Injection 

Dose quantity : 2


*Company name:MODERNA

Vaccine name: mRNA-1273

Efficiency : 94.5%

Dose quantity : 2

Type: Injection 


*Company name: ZYDUS

Vaccine name : ZyCoV-D

Efficiency : not identified 

Dose quantity : 3

Type :Injection 


*Company name: TaKaRa

Name: AG0302-COVID19

Efficiency : Unknown 

Dose quantity :2

Type: Injection. 


Note:

As there is no vaccine identified safe and efficient till now, there's no surety of vaccine should be invented in recent time.Only our self precaution cane save us from this CORONA pandemic. Social distancing is the best solution to remain safe from this disease. 6 feet distancing should be maintained for our own sake. We should sanitize our hand after touching something and should wash our hand by soup for 20 seconds before eating anything. 


A survey says that, wearing mask can give us 80% safety from this disease. We all should wear mask and should follow all the health rules to remain safe from this epidemic. 


readmore

A from of drama which stages the fall of a superior human being from the zenith of his success to the nadir of his misery for some inherent defect in his character. The essence of tragedy is the purgation of pity and fear of the audience. There are several Types of tragedy: heroic tragedy, Senecan tragedy, revenge tragedy, etc.

Types of tragedy

Types of Tragedy

Heroic Tragedy  

A kind of drama written in grand and lofty style to show a disastrous end of a conflict between love and honour or love and duty. Dryden's All For Love is an example.


Senecan Tragedy

A from of tragedy modelled on the drama of Seneca, a Roman playwright. The essential elements of this kind of tragedy are:


a) 

The use of chorus for comment,

b) 

A sensational theme involving a quest for revenge, adultery, incest, infanticide, off-stage murder, etc.

c) 

Typical characters as a ghost, a cruel tyrant, a faithful male servant, a reliable female, etc.

d) 

A highly rhetorical style which is marked by the use of Aepigram, stichomythia (sharp dialogues) hyperboles, etc.

e) 

Much use of philosphic soliloquies. Kyd's Spanish Tragedy and Shakespeare's Hamlet follow Senecan tradition except the murders on the stage.


Revenge Tragedy  

A kind of tragedy modelled on the Senecan tragedy. The popular elements of this type of drama are ---a quest for vengeance, ghosts graveyards, insanity, incest, adultery, rape, suicide, arson, play within a play, sensational incidents and horrible murders on the stage. For the gruesome blood shed on the stage this type of tragedy is also known as "tragedy of blood" . Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy Shakespeare's Hamlet and Tourneur's Atheist's Tragedy are revenge tragedies. Revenge tragedy and Senecan tragedy are almost similar only with the difference that revenge tragedy allows murders on stage while Senecan tragedy reports off-stage murders.


Briefly discuss about types of tragedy

Literaturemini | December 10, 2020 | 0 comments

A from of drama which stages the fall of a superior human being from the zenith of his success to the nadir of his misery for some inherent defect in his character. The essence of tragedy is the purgation of pity and fear of the audience. There are several Types of tragedy: heroic tragedy, Senecan tragedy, revenge tragedy, etc.

Types of tragedy

Types of Tragedy

Heroic Tragedy  

A kind of drama written in grand and lofty style to show a disastrous end of a conflict between love and honour or love and duty. Dryden's All For Love is an example.


Senecan Tragedy

A from of tragedy modelled on the drama of Seneca, a Roman playwright. The essential elements of this kind of tragedy are:


a) 

The use of chorus for comment,

b) 

A sensational theme involving a quest for revenge, adultery, incest, infanticide, off-stage murder, etc.

c) 

Typical characters as a ghost, a cruel tyrant, a faithful male servant, a reliable female, etc.

d) 

A highly rhetorical style which is marked by the use of Aepigram, stichomythia (sharp dialogues) hyperboles, etc.

e) 

Much use of philosphic soliloquies. Kyd's Spanish Tragedy and Shakespeare's Hamlet follow Senecan tradition except the murders on the stage.


Revenge Tragedy  

A kind of tragedy modelled on the Senecan tragedy. The popular elements of this type of drama are ---a quest for vengeance, ghosts graveyards, insanity, incest, adultery, rape, suicide, arson, play within a play, sensational incidents and horrible murders on the stage. For the gruesome blood shed on the stage this type of tragedy is also known as "tragedy of blood" . Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy Shakespeare's Hamlet and Tourneur's Atheist's Tragedy are revenge tragedies. Revenge tragedy and Senecan tragedy are almost similar only with the difference that revenge tragedy allows murders on stage while Senecan tragedy reports off-stage murders.


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A kind of drama which begins with misfortune or discord but ends in happiness. Its aim is to correct the follies and frivolities of the individuals of a particular society through laughter and ridicule. Aristophanes, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson and Bernard Shaw are among the best known comedy writers. There are of various types of comedy : romantic comedy, comedy of humours, comedy of manners, Restoration comedy, tragi-comedy, burlesque, farce, black-comedy, high comedy, low comedy, comedy of ideas, etc. A few of them are discussed here:

Type of comedy

Type of Comedy


Romantic Comedy 

A from of comedy which deals with love, often love at first sight, as its main theme. It starts with some problems that make the union of the lovers difficult but ends with their happy union. Shakespeare's As You Like It a romantic comedy.

Comedy of Humours

A comedy in which characters behave according to their respective humours----the four fluids of human body. Ben Jonson's Every Man in His Humour and Every Man Out of His Humour are two famous comedies of this type. (see Humours)

Comedy of Manners

A comedy which portrays the ridiculous behaviour pattern of the individuals of an aristocratic society. It is concerned with the coarseness, immorality, faithlessness, jealousy, intrigue, etc. of an artificial society. Congreve's The Way of the World and Sheridan's The School for Scandal are examples of it.

Restoration Comedy

A kind of comedy written in the Restoration Period (1660-1700). It is identical to the comedy of manners as it also ridicules the manners and conventions, the faithlessness and intrigues of the members of the upper class society of the Restoration Period of England. Wycherley, Etheredge, Congreve, Vanbrugh and Farquhar are the five famous writers of the Restoration comedy. Farquhar's The Recruiting Officer, Congreve's Love for Love and The Double Dealer and Vanbrugh's The Provoked Wife are bright examples of the Restoration comedy.

Tragi- Comedy

A kind of play in which tragic and comic scenes are mingled. It violates the classical rules of writing pure tragedy or pure comedy on the logic that human life is neither absolutely sad nor absolutely happy. According to the classical theory of drama grand themes and upper class characters are appropriate to tragedy; low subjects and low people are fit for comedy. A typical tragedy needs a grave development of the plot which usually results in death. Quite opposite to it, a typical comedy needs a light development of the plot which ends in happiness. But there are plays in which low and high characters act together, light and grave events happen in the same plot, or death and marriage take place almost simultaneously. Such a play is called tragi-comedy. Typical examples of the tragi-comedy are Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, Cymbeline and The Tempest, Dryden's Secret Love, and the like.

Black - Comedy or Dark- Comedy

A kind of drama which portrays the meaninglessness of human existence. It reflects the world view that life is a "tragic farce" because it is controlled by fate or fortune. So this kind of comedy laughs at human predicament which hide a bitter frustration. Black-comedy is identical to dark-comedy. Pinter's The Homecoming, Joseph Heller's Catch-22, Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, Measure for Measure, The Winter's Tale and Joe Orton's Loot are examples of black-comedy or dark-comedy.

Comedy of Ideas

A from of comedy which presents certain ideas or theories through debate. Shaw's Man and Superman and The Apple Cart are examples of it

High Comedy

A kind of comedy of manners which demands a certain urbane taste and intellectual effort on the part of the audience. Shakespeare's As You Like It, Much Ado About Nothing, Shaw's Pygmalion and Congreve's The Way of the World are a few examples of the high comedy.

Low Comedy

A from of crude comedy which uses quarrelling, fighting, coarse joking, clownishness and the like, to provoke cheap laughter. Low comedy is not recognized as a separate type of comedy but is found with various types of comedy or tragedy. The porter scene in Macbeth and the brothel scene in Pericles are examples of low comedy.

Briefly discuss about Types of Comedy

Literaturemini | December 08, 2020 | 0 comments

A kind of drama which begins with misfortune or discord but ends in happiness. Its aim is to correct the follies and frivolities of the individuals of a particular society through laughter and ridicule. Aristophanes, Shakespeare, Ben Jonson and Bernard Shaw are among the best known comedy writers. There are of various types of comedy : romantic comedy, comedy of humours, comedy of manners, Restoration comedy, tragi-comedy, burlesque, farce, black-comedy, high comedy, low comedy, comedy of ideas, etc. A few of them are discussed here:

Type of comedy

Type of Comedy


Romantic Comedy 

A from of comedy which deals with love, often love at first sight, as its main theme. It starts with some problems that make the union of the lovers difficult but ends with their happy union. Shakespeare's As You Like It a romantic comedy.

Comedy of Humours

A comedy in which characters behave according to their respective humours----the four fluids of human body. Ben Jonson's Every Man in His Humour and Every Man Out of His Humour are two famous comedies of this type. (see Humours)

Comedy of Manners

A comedy which portrays the ridiculous behaviour pattern of the individuals of an aristocratic society. It is concerned with the coarseness, immorality, faithlessness, jealousy, intrigue, etc. of an artificial society. Congreve's The Way of the World and Sheridan's The School for Scandal are examples of it.

Restoration Comedy

A kind of comedy written in the Restoration Period (1660-1700). It is identical to the comedy of manners as it also ridicules the manners and conventions, the faithlessness and intrigues of the members of the upper class society of the Restoration Period of England. Wycherley, Etheredge, Congreve, Vanbrugh and Farquhar are the five famous writers of the Restoration comedy. Farquhar's The Recruiting Officer, Congreve's Love for Love and The Double Dealer and Vanbrugh's The Provoked Wife are bright examples of the Restoration comedy.

Tragi- Comedy

A kind of play in which tragic and comic scenes are mingled. It violates the classical rules of writing pure tragedy or pure comedy on the logic that human life is neither absolutely sad nor absolutely happy. According to the classical theory of drama grand themes and upper class characters are appropriate to tragedy; low subjects and low people are fit for comedy. A typical tragedy needs a grave development of the plot which usually results in death. Quite opposite to it, a typical comedy needs a light development of the plot which ends in happiness. But there are plays in which low and high characters act together, light and grave events happen in the same plot, or death and marriage take place almost simultaneously. Such a play is called tragi-comedy. Typical examples of the tragi-comedy are Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, Cymbeline and The Tempest, Dryden's Secret Love, and the like.

Black - Comedy or Dark- Comedy

A kind of drama which portrays the meaninglessness of human existence. It reflects the world view that life is a "tragic farce" because it is controlled by fate or fortune. So this kind of comedy laughs at human predicament which hide a bitter frustration. Black-comedy is identical to dark-comedy. Pinter's The Homecoming, Joseph Heller's Catch-22, Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, Measure for Measure, The Winter's Tale and Joe Orton's Loot are examples of black-comedy or dark-comedy.

Comedy of Ideas

A from of comedy which presents certain ideas or theories through debate. Shaw's Man and Superman and The Apple Cart are examples of it

High Comedy

A kind of comedy of manners which demands a certain urbane taste and intellectual effort on the part of the audience. Shakespeare's As You Like It, Much Ado About Nothing, Shaw's Pygmalion and Congreve's The Way of the World are a few examples of the high comedy.

Low Comedy

A from of crude comedy which uses quarrelling, fighting, coarse joking, clownishness and the like, to provoke cheap laughter. Low comedy is not recognized as a separate type of comedy but is found with various types of comedy or tragedy. The porter scene in Macbeth and the brothel scene in Pericles are examples of low comedy.

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The theme of the evil of imperialism lies at the centre of the novel heart of darkness perhaps joseph conrad s main objective in this novel is to show the imperialist exploitation of a backward country by a civilized nation conrad s treatment of this theme was that dark country.

Theme of imperialism

The keynote of the theme of imperialism may be traced at the very beging of marlow s narration the conquest of another country says marlow mostly means the taking away all things from those who have in the congo clearly show that the whitemen there failed experiences in the congo clearly show that the whitemen there failed to performance their duties instead of civilizing the Savage  natives the whitemen turned into exploiters the congo was at that time being governed by the Belgian king Leopold ii and the Belgian trading company was sending its agents into the congo for trading purposes. ivory was the chief commodity they sought for trading purposes ivory was the chief commodity they sought for later on we see that ivory not only dominates the thoughts of Mr kurtz the agent of the belgian trading company but also has become an obsession with him the ivory symbolizes the whitemen's greed and commercial mentality their chief concern in the congo is to collect ivory although they profess that they have come to civilize the natives nowhere do we find any mention of any service being rendered by these whitemen to the natives of congo.

A glorious example of evil and selfishness we find in mr kurtz.he has begun to identify himself with the Savages instead of improving their way of life he has himself become a Savage in their company actually heart of darkness portrays in a nutshell the deceit robberies murder slave trading and general policy of cruelty of the Belgian rule in the congo Conrad in this novel not only exposes the hollowness and the weakness of the Belgian imperialist rule over the congo but also reminds us of the British imperialism in various countries of the world of his time.

To sum up the Belgian trading company went to the then dark continent the congo to civilize the  natives there but ironically they became uncivilized and brutish for material gains they turned out to be seasoned schemers and plotters Joseph Conrad conveys his strong disapproval of these whitemen to us most effectively and his purpose is to raise in us the greatest possible contempt for these whitemen.

How does Conrad treat the theme of imperialism in Heart of Darkness?

Literaturemini | July 26, 2020 | 0 comments
The theme of the evil of imperialism lies at the centre of the novel heart of darkness perhaps joseph conrad s main objective in this novel is to show the imperialist exploitation of a backward country by a civilized nation conrad s treatment of this theme was that dark country.

Theme of imperialism

The keynote of the theme of imperialism may be traced at the very beging of marlow s narration the conquest of another country says marlow mostly means the taking away all things from those who have in the congo clearly show that the whitemen there failed experiences in the congo clearly show that the whitemen there failed to performance their duties instead of civilizing the Savage  natives the whitemen turned into exploiters the congo was at that time being governed by the Belgian king Leopold ii and the Belgian trading company was sending its agents into the congo for trading purposes. ivory was the chief commodity they sought for trading purposes ivory was the chief commodity they sought for later on we see that ivory not only dominates the thoughts of Mr kurtz the agent of the belgian trading company but also has become an obsession with him the ivory symbolizes the whitemen's greed and commercial mentality their chief concern in the congo is to collect ivory although they profess that they have come to civilize the natives nowhere do we find any mention of any service being rendered by these whitemen to the natives of congo.
Theme of imperialism

A glorious example of evil and selfishness we find in mr kurtz.he has begun to identify himself with the Savages instead of improving their way of life he has himself become a Savage in their company actually heart of darkness portrays in a nutshell the deceit robberies murder slave trading and general policy of cruelty of the Belgian rule in the congo Conrad in this novel not only exposes the hollowness and the weakness of the Belgian imperialist rule over the congo but also reminds us of the British imperialism in various countries of the world of his time.

To sum up the Belgian trading company went to the then dark continent the congo to civilize the  natives there but ironically they became uncivilized and brutish for material gains they turned out to be seasoned schemers and plotters Joseph Conrad conveys his strong disapproval of these whitemen to us most effectively and his purpose is to raise in us the greatest possible contempt for these whitemen.
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Pastoral elegies had its origin in the classical poet of ancient Greece, viz, Theocritus, Bion and Moschus. It was lyric in character and dealt with the simple life of shepherds and their day to day occupations, such as singing with their oaten pipes in the flowery meadows, piping as though they would never be old, tending their flock of sheep. The essence of pastoral poetry is simplicity of thought and action in a rustic setting.

Perhaps Arnold's two best-known poems are "The Scholar Gipsy" and "Thyrsis", which are generally labelled as pastoral elegies deeply steeping in classical lore. " The Scholar Gipsy", ostensibly about a seventeenth-century Oxford student who joined the Gypsies to learn their lore is really about the poet himself and his generation. In the poem, the scholar gypsy becomes a symbol in the light of which Arnold can develop his own position and state his own problems. Drawing on his knowledge of rustic scenes around Oxford, he produced a meditative pastoral poem whose language owes something to Theocritus but whose tone and emotional colouring are very much Arnoldian.

Arnold creates a pastoral or rural setting in "The Scholar Gipsy". The local colour of the poem is a charm of the pastoral elegy. The poem is set in the Oxford countryside which is vividly brought home to us, and it is made more beautiful and enchanting by the modifying colours of imagination. Green muffled Cumner hills and sloping pastures bright with sunshine and flowers, stripling Thames at Bab-lock -hithe, with pleasure boats, Wychwood bowers bright with flowers, the Fyfield elm where maidens dance in May, flooded fields, the causeway and the wooden bridge, Bagley Wood where gipsies pitch their tents, sparkling Thames and Godstow Bridge, abandoned lasher where rustics bathe, constitute a real landscape around Oxford, made lovely with the magic touch, of poet's imagination. It forms an ideal setting for the spiritual presence of the Scholar Gipsy.

Around addresses the friend of the Scholar Gipsy after the pastoral convention. The poet asks his companion, s Shepherd, to attend to the sheep and let loose them from the folds. Having discharged his duties, the Shepherd is advised to come to him again in the evening. But Arnold has not identified himself with a Shepherd like other pastoral poets.In the poem, his friend in quest, however, is a Shepherd.

Again, "The Scholar Gipsy" is not a pastoral elegy in its conventional sense. S pastoral elegy contains a lament for the dead. The poet mourns the death of a person in the garb of Shepherd and creates the setting of the pastoral life. But here the poet does not appear in the guise of s Shepherd nor does not mouth the death of anyone. Only his friend appears in the guise of a Shepherd in the first stanza and then we do not hear anything about him in the rest of the poem. What the poet laments in the poem is the decay of an age or vanished age.

In structure the poem is no doubt pastoral; the fairly elaborate ten-line stanza helps to keep the movement of the poem slow and develop the note of introspection. The slow movement of the verse and the stately utterances of thought are in perfect keeping with the sad, philosophical mood of the poet. But, the tone of the poem has a modern touch; the spirit permeating the poem is typically Victorian- the spirit of unrest seeking spiritual illumination.The elegy writer after lamenting the physical death of his friend would bring out the immortal qualities he possessed.

The elegy always ends with a note of hope that the subject of lamentation is not really dead, but is alive. Arnold very aptly makes use of this conversion and establishes that the Scholar Gipsy will live forever. The Scholar Gipsy has one aim, one business, one desire-the spiritual quest for truth. He has singleness of purpose. His singleness of purpose makes him immortal. "The Scholar Gipsy" is Arnold's modification of the pastoral elegy, not in a strict sense. The pastoral elements are found in the first half of the poem (stanzas 1-13) in the description of the Oxford countryside that is travelled by the Scholar Gipsy; the criticism of Victorian life in the second half (stanzas 14-25) where by a simple process of confrontation the scholar gipsy's happiness and singleness of mind are used to undermine what Arnold felt to be wrong in his own life and the lives of his contemporaries.

Discuss "The Scholar Gipsy" as a pastoral elegy?

Green Land | July 15, 2020 | 0 comments
Pastoral elegies had its origin in the classical poet of ancient Greece, viz, Theocritus, Bion and Moschus. It was lyric in character and dealt with the simple life of shepherds and their day to day occupations, such as singing with their oaten pipes in the flowery meadows, piping as though they would never be old, tending their flock of sheep. The essence of pastoral poetry is simplicity of thought and action in a rustic setting.
The Scholar Gipsy" as a pastoral elegy

Perhaps Arnold's two best-known poems are "The Scholar Gipsy" and "Thyrsis", which are generally labelled as pastoral elegies deeply steeping in classical lore. " The Scholar Gipsy", ostensibly about a seventeenth-century Oxford student who joined the Gypsies to learn their lore is really about the poet himself and his generation. In the poem, the scholar gypsy becomes a symbol in the light of which Arnold can develop his own position and state his own problems. Drawing on his knowledge of rustic scenes around Oxford, he produced a meditative pastoral poem whose language owes something to Theocritus but whose tone and emotional colouring are very much Arnoldian.

Arnold creates a pastoral or rural setting in "The Scholar Gipsy". The local colour of the poem is a charm of the pastoral elegy. The poem is set in the Oxford countryside which is vividly brought home to us, and it is made more beautiful and enchanting by the modifying colours of imagination. Green muffled Cumner hills and sloping pastures bright with sunshine and flowers, stripling Thames at Bab-lock -hithe, with pleasure boats, Wychwood bowers bright with flowers, the Fyfield elm where maidens dance in May, flooded fields, the causeway and the wooden bridge, Bagley Wood where gipsies pitch their tents, sparkling Thames and Godstow Bridge, abandoned lasher where rustics bathe, constitute a real landscape around Oxford, made lovely with the magic touch, of poet's imagination. It forms an ideal setting for the spiritual presence of the Scholar Gipsy.

Around addresses the friend of the Scholar Gipsy after the pastoral convention. The poet asks his companion, s Shepherd, to attend to the sheep and let loose them from the folds. Having discharged his duties, the Shepherd is advised to come to him again in the evening. But Arnold has not identified himself with a Shepherd like other pastoral poets.In the poem, his friend in quest, however, is a Shepherd.

Again, "The Scholar Gipsy" is not a pastoral elegy in its conventional sense. S pastoral elegy contains a lament for the dead. The poet mourns the death of a person in the garb of Shepherd and creates the setting of the pastoral life. But here the poet does not appear in the guise of s Shepherd nor does not mouth the death of anyone. Only his friend appears in the guise of a Shepherd in the first stanza and then we do not hear anything about him in the rest of the poem. What the poet laments in the poem is the decay of an age or vanished age.

In structure the poem is no doubt pastoral; the fairly elaborate ten-line stanza helps to keep the movement of the poem slow and develop the note of introspection. The slow movement of the verse and the stately utterances of thought are in perfect keeping with the sad, philosophical mood of the poet. But, the tone of the poem has a modern touch; the spirit permeating the poem is typically Victorian- the spirit of unrest seeking spiritual illumination.The elegy writer after lamenting the physical death of his friend would bring out the immortal qualities he possessed.

The elegy always ends with a note of hope that the subject of lamentation is not really dead, but is alive. Arnold very aptly makes use of this conversion and establishes that the Scholar Gipsy will live forever. The Scholar Gipsy has one aim, one business, one desire-the spiritual quest for truth. He has singleness of purpose. His singleness of purpose makes him immortal. "The Scholar Gipsy" is Arnold's modification of the pastoral elegy, not in a strict sense. The pastoral elements are found in the first half of the poem (stanzas 1-13) in the description of the Oxford countryside that is travelled by the Scholar Gipsy; the criticism of Victorian life in the second half (stanzas 14-25) where by a simple process of confrontation the scholar gipsy's happiness and singleness of mind are used to undermine what Arnold felt to be wrong in his own life and the lives of his contemporaries.
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In "The Scholar Gipsy" Arnold's attitude to the gipsy is closely analogue to that of an adult towards child. He appreciates even envies its innocence, but realizes that there is no return to such state is possible for himself. The child loses its 'innocence' not by some act of sin or by a defect of intellect, but merely by gaining experience and developing into an adult. The realities of adult life turn out to be less agreeable. The gipsy, like a child, is the embodiment of a good lost, not of a good temporarily or culpably mislaid. When Arnold contrasts the gipsy's serenity with the disquiets and perplexities of his own age, he is not satirizing the nineteenth century, or renouncing it, or criticizing it, or suggesting a remedy, he is rather, exploring its spiritual and emotional losses, and the stoic readjustment which this will entail for it:  

 -No, no thou hast not felt the lapse of hours!  For what wears out of the life of mortal men? 'Tis that form change to change their bearing rolls;"

The Scholar Gipsy" is not an elegy of a personal sorrow because of the death of any dear one. What the poet laments in the poem is the decay of an age or vanished age. In the poem he laments the life of the modern men who have no fixed purpose in life. They are fully materialistic and have very little faith in religion. They always run after money and spend all their energies on a thousand schemes. Their life consists of a series of changes. They cannot stick to anything for long. They are like rolling stones that gather no moss. As a result they receive a series of shocks and lose vitality of mind, They grow old and feeble going through many ups and downs in course of their lives. They go through joys and sorrows of life, which has a tiring effect on them. They undertake too many works and do not attain fruition in any of them. Frustrations and disappointments are always in store for them. So their minds are completely worn out and thus they meet their spiritual death. They remain where they had been at the beginning without achieving any significant goal. Thus, Arnold portrays modern life as a diseased one.

But the Scholar Gipsy chooses to live away from the strange disease of modern man. He does not hanker after material gain and passion of life. He seeks divine inspiration to learn the gipsy lore which, he thinks, will be beneficial for mankind. He was born in an age when people were not racked by doubts and despair. Science and rationalism which proved the bane of the modern age were not there. Life was care-free and flowed smoothly like the sparking Thames. Like the modern man he did not suffer from the sick hurry and divided aims of the modern man. He had one aim, one business, one desire. He spent all his energies on his singleness of purpose. His fixity of purpose made him immortal. Hence, Arnold asks the Scholar Gipsy to avoid the contact of the modern man. Once he comes in contact with the modern man, he will lose his faith, purpose and habitual cheerfulness of mind.

Thus, Arnold's melancholy has a lofty ideal and throw a heavenly light on the minds of the troubled mankind. It does not, however, have an unnerving effect. His melancholy has indeed a meaning and a message. It guides mankind in their spiritual endeavours and struggle for perfection with a singleness of purpose and spirit of dedication.

Discuss the elegiac quality of Arnold's "Scholar Gipsy".

Green Land | July 15, 2020 | 0 comments
Matthew Arnold is the greatest elegiac poet in the world of poetry. His most famous elegiac poems are "The Scholar Gipsy", " Thyrsis", "Dover Beach", " A Summer Night ", " Rugby Chapel ". His elegiac poetry is more than a mere expression of sorrow. His poetry invariably becomes reflective and philosophical. Poetry according to Matthew Arnold is a criticism of life. This is quite true about his own poetry. Garrod rightly says: " His poetry, profoundly melancholic, runs from the world, runs from it, as I think, hurt, hurt in some vital part. It believes itself able to sustain life only in the shade." His poetry is a spontaneous expression of " his native melancholy, of the Virgilian cry over the mournfulness of mortal destiny".
the elegiac quality of Arnold's

In "The Scholar Gipsy" Arnold's attitude to the gipsy is closely analogue to that of an adult towards child. He appreciates even envies its innocence, but realizes that there is no return to such state is possible for himself. The child loses its 'innocence' not by some act of sin or by a defect of intellect, but merely by gaining experience and developing into an adult. The realities of adult life turn out to be less agreeable. The gipsy, like a child, is the embodiment of a good lost, not of a good temporarily or culpably mislaid. When Arnold contrasts the gipsy's serenity with the disquiets and perplexities of his own age, he is not satirizing the nineteenth century, or renouncing it, or criticizing it, or suggesting a remedy, he is rather, exploring its spiritual and emotional losses, and the stoic readjustment which this will entail for it:  

 -No, no thou hast not felt the lapse of hours!  For what wears out of the life of mortal men? 'Tis that form change to change their bearing rolls;"

The Scholar Gipsy" is not an elegy of a personal sorrow because of the death of any dear one. What the poet laments in the poem is the decay of an age or vanished age. In the poem he laments the life of the modern men who have no fixed purpose in life. They are fully materialistic and have very little faith in religion. They always run after money and spend all their energies on a thousand schemes. Their life consists of a series of changes. They cannot stick to anything for long. They are like rolling stones that gather no moss. As a result they receive a series of shocks and lose vitality of mind, They grow old and feeble going through many ups and downs in course of their lives. They go through joys and sorrows of life, which has a tiring effect on them. They undertake too many works and do not attain fruition in any of them. Frustrations and disappointments are always in store for them. So their minds are completely worn out and thus they meet their spiritual death. They remain where they had been at the beginning without achieving any significant goal. Thus, Arnold portrays modern life as a diseased one.

But the Scholar Gipsy chooses to live away from the strange disease of modern man. He does not hanker after material gain and passion of life. He seeks divine inspiration to learn the gipsy lore which, he thinks, will be beneficial for mankind. He was born in an age when people were not racked by doubts and despair. Science and rationalism which proved the bane of the modern age were not there. Life was care-free and flowed smoothly like the sparking Thames. Like the modern man he did not suffer from the sick hurry and divided aims of the modern man. He had one aim, one business, one desire. He spent all his energies on his singleness of purpose. His fixity of purpose made him immortal. Hence, Arnold asks the Scholar Gipsy to avoid the contact of the modern man. Once he comes in contact with the modern man, he will lose his faith, purpose and habitual cheerfulness of mind.

Thus, Arnold's melancholy has a lofty ideal and throw a heavenly light on the minds of the troubled mankind. It does not, however, have an unnerving effect. His melancholy has indeed a meaning and a message. It guides mankind in their spiritual endeavours and struggle for perfection with a singleness of purpose and spirit of dedication.
readmore
 
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