skip to main | skip to sidebar

Surrealism (from  Superrealism)  was launched as a concerned movement in France by Andre Breton's Manifesto on Surrealism, 1924. The expressed aim wasa revolution Against all restraints included the logical reason, standard morality, social and artistic conventions,  and the control of artistic creation by forethought and intention. To ensure the unhampered operation of the deep mind, which they regarded as the only source of valid knowledge and art the surrealists turned to 'automatic writing'    (writing delivered over entirely to the prompting the unconscious mind),  and to exploiting the material of dreams, of states of mind between sleep and waking, and of natural or artificially induced hallucinations.

Surrealism is a revolutionary movement in painting,  sculpture,  and in other arts,  as in literature. It is often united briefly with one or another revolutionary political and social movement, and it is found to spread rapidly over both  Europe and America. It is more important, however,in its general influence than in the work of the  relatively small group of its professed adherents such as Andre Breton, Louis Aragon and the painter Salvador Dali. The influence, direct or indirect, of surrealist innovation can be found in many modern writers in prose and verse. They have broken the conventional modes of an artistic organisation to experiment with free association, violated syntax, non-logical and chronological order, dreamlike and nightmarish sequences and juxtaposition of bizarre, shocking or seemingly unrelated matters or thoughts. In England and America such effects can be found in a wider range of writings, from the poetry of Dylan Thomas to the flight of fantasy, hallucinatory writing, startling in consequences.                                                                    

What is Surrealism?

Literaturemini | February 26, 2021 | 0 comments

Surrealism (from  Superrealism)  was launched as a concerned movement in France by Andre Breton's Manifesto on Surrealism, 1924. The expressed aim wasa revolution Against all restraints included the logical reason, standard morality, social and artistic conventions,  and the control of artistic creation by forethought and intention. To ensure the unhampered operation of the deep mind, which they regarded as the only source of valid knowledge and art the surrealists turned to 'automatic writing'    (writing delivered over entirely to the prompting the unconscious mind),  and to exploiting the material of dreams, of states of mind between sleep and waking, and of natural or artificially induced hallucinations.

Surrealism is a revolutionary movement in painting,  sculpture,  and in other arts,  as in literature. It is often united briefly with one or another revolutionary political and social movement, and it is found to spread rapidly over both  Europe and America. It is more important, however,in its general influence than in the work of the  relatively small group of its professed adherents such as Andre Breton, Louis Aragon and the painter Salvador Dali. The influence, direct or indirect, of surrealist innovation can be found in many modern writers in prose and verse. They have broken the conventional modes of an artistic organisation to experiment with free association, violated syntax, non-logical and chronological order, dreamlike and nightmarish sequences and juxtaposition of bizarre, shocking or seemingly unrelated matters or thoughts. In England and America such effects can be found in a wider range of writings, from the poetry of Dylan Thomas to the flight of fantasy, hallucinatory writing, startling in consequences.                                                                    

readmore

Drama has different types. One specific type is of the ideas.  This is called the drama or play of ideas.  As the very name signifies,the play of ideas are intended for propagating ideas on society, social life and even individual relationship. Such plays differ from romantic plays, and are not artificial comedies of the sophisticated manners of a fashionable society. These comedies are concerned with life and society, the problems of life and society, and present them in different perspective. These plays of ideas are fundamentally socio-realistic and have a didactic value.

Shaw is called the father of the theatre of ideas.  His plays are found specially packed with ideas on varied matters. In the opinion of potts, ''  What he is fundamentally concerned with is ideas''. In Shaw's own language- ''The function of comedy is to dispel unconsciousness by turning the Searchlight of the keenest moral and intellectual analysis right on it. ''It is by his searchlight of ideas that shaw    lights up the moral and intellectual bluntness of the society of his times and aims at converting people to his own moral and ideal.       

What is Drama of Ideas?

Literaturemini | February 25, 2021 | 0 comments

Drama has different types. One specific type is of the ideas.  This is called the drama or play of ideas.  As the very name signifies,the play of ideas are intended for propagating ideas on society, social life and even individual relationship. Such plays differ from romantic plays, and are not artificial comedies of the sophisticated manners of a fashionable society. These comedies are concerned with life and society, the problems of life and society, and present them in different perspective. These plays of ideas are fundamentally socio-realistic and have a didactic value.

Shaw is called the father of the theatre of ideas.  His plays are found specially packed with ideas on varied matters. In the opinion of potts, ''  What he is fundamentally concerned with is ideas''. In Shaw's own language- ''The function of comedy is to dispel unconsciousness by turning the Searchlight of the keenest moral and intellectual analysis right on it. ''It is by his searchlight of ideas that shaw    lights up the moral and intellectual bluntness of the society of his times and aims at converting people to his own moral and ideal.       

readmore

The stream of consciousness novel is an improved and more delicate form of the psychological novel which Richardson, George Eliot, Mrs. Gaskell,  and many others treated long before. The term ' stream of consciousness' was, perhaps,  used first by May Sinclair in connection with Dorothy Richardson's novels. What characterises this class of novel is the treatment of a character- a man or a women - not in his or her external life and doing, but in his or her inner world of psychology. A deep probe is made here into the dark corridor of a mind. An analytical survey is attempted of the intricate flow of the human brain. The Technique here is to render consciousness active in its own self, as it flows from moment to moment.  This Technique is found eminently used, with varying degrees of intensity, by Dorothy Richardson James Joyce and Mrs. Virginia Woolf, three big names in this king of fiction.

The stream of consciousness novel is concerned with the atmosphere of a mind.  It is not a novel of incidents or of action,  but rather treats the inner world of man. It depicts and illuminates the particular moments of human experiences and feelings and reveals how a mind is affected at its bottom by the same.  It turns from external reality to inner revelation, from the outward world of action to the hidden resort of reverie. 

The main aspect of this class of novel is found in an inward turning towards mental experiences and shocks. The novelist exposes how a man's mind moves mysteriously and how it flows continuously yet quite intricately.  He makes a penetrative analysis of this tendency of the mind, dissecting it in all its elusive and dynamic aspects. His is an expressionist technique to  reveal different characters- their inmost thoughts,  moods,  feelings however inconsequent or fragmentary these may be.  There may  appear something chaotic,  but in essence the whole approach is consistent.                                                                

What is Stream of Consciousness Novels?

Literaturemini | February 25, 2021 | 0 comments

The stream of consciousness novel is an improved and more delicate form of the psychological novel which Richardson, George Eliot, Mrs. Gaskell,  and many others treated long before. The term ' stream of consciousness' was, perhaps,  used first by May Sinclair in connection with Dorothy Richardson's novels. What characterises this class of novel is the treatment of a character- a man or a women - not in his or her external life and doing, but in his or her inner world of psychology. A deep probe is made here into the dark corridor of a mind. An analytical survey is attempted of the intricate flow of the human brain. The Technique here is to render consciousness active in its own self, as it flows from moment to moment.  This Technique is found eminently used, with varying degrees of intensity, by Dorothy Richardson James Joyce and Mrs. Virginia Woolf, three big names in this king of fiction.

The stream of consciousness novel is concerned with the atmosphere of a mind.  It is not a novel of incidents or of action,  but rather treats the inner world of man. It depicts and illuminates the particular moments of human experiences and feelings and reveals how a mind is affected at its bottom by the same.  It turns from external reality to inner revelation, from the outward world of action to the hidden resort of reverie. 

The main aspect of this class of novel is found in an inward turning towards mental experiences and shocks. The novelist exposes how a man's mind moves mysteriously and how it flows continuously yet quite intricately.  He makes a penetrative analysis of this tendency of the mind, dissecting it in all its elusive and dynamic aspects. His is an expressionist technique to  reveal different characters- their inmost thoughts,  moods,  feelings however inconsequent or fragmentary these may be.  There may  appear something chaotic,  but in essence the whole approach is consistent.                                                                

readmore

Naturalism is a dominant feature in modern literature. It was particularly found introduced by the celebrated French author-Balzac.

Naturalism implies the presented of matters, situations,  or scenes as they actually are without any kind of alteration or deviation. It communicates the truthful representation  of any diversification enlargement or alteration.  

Naturally,  naturalism is taken as akin to realism,  through this bears a much more sophisticated sense.  In realism,  the author conveys what he looks upon as real,but in naturalism he represents what is natural as seen or perceived by him and or others. 

Of course, absolute naturalism is impossible in literature,  and may not at all be conductive,  too,  to any literary subject. Like any photographic reality,  it often affects the creative art in the artist,  enfeebles his inventive and imaginative  vitality and thereby affects the spontaneity of his creation and art to a certain extent. An artistic adjustment between naturalism and imaginative creativity is always a necessity.                                         

        

What is Naturalism?

Literaturemini | February 25, 2021 | 0 comments

Naturalism is a dominant feature in modern literature. It was particularly found introduced by the celebrated French author-Balzac.

Naturalism implies the presented of matters, situations,  or scenes as they actually are without any kind of alteration or deviation. It communicates the truthful representation  of any diversification enlargement or alteration.  

Naturally,  naturalism is taken as akin to realism,  through this bears a much more sophisticated sense.  In realism,  the author conveys what he looks upon as real,but in naturalism he represents what is natural as seen or perceived by him and or others. 

Of course, absolute naturalism is impossible in literature,  and may not at all be conductive,  too,  to any literary subject. Like any photographic reality,  it often affects the creative art in the artist,  enfeebles his inventive and imaginative  vitality and thereby affects the spontaneity of his creation and art to a certain extent. An artistic adjustment between naturalism and imaginative creativity is always a necessity.                                         

        

readmore

'Supernaturalism' refers to some power above the normal forces of nature. It is, in fact,  some fascinating view,  not at all easily convincing or explicate.  Of course, supernaturalism is concerned with various elements and may be manifested in different ways particularly in imagination literary works. 

Supernaturalism forms, indeed, much of romantic literature. In the English romantic literature of the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth century, its predominance is undeniable,  In Keats and Coleridge,  the supernatural impact is patent distinctly. In fact, supernaturalism forms an essential machinery in Coleridge poetic craft.  Of course with Coleridge, this is quite delicate and permits suspension of disbelief for the time being. 

Supernaturalism,  however,  may appear rather grossly in some literary works such as the Gothic romance of the eighteenth century and true horror tales of the Romantic Age. In Walpole,  Mrs. Radcliffe and Mary Shelly this sort of crude supernaturalism is exhibited.                                                     

What is Supernaturalism?

Literaturemini | February 24, 2021 | 0 comments

'Supernaturalism' refers to some power above the normal forces of nature. It is, in fact,  some fascinating view,  not at all easily convincing or explicate.  Of course, supernaturalism is concerned with various elements and may be manifested in different ways particularly in imagination literary works. 

Supernaturalism forms, indeed, much of romantic literature. In the English romantic literature of the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth century, its predominance is undeniable,  In Keats and Coleridge,  the supernatural impact is patent distinctly. In fact, supernaturalism forms an essential machinery in Coleridge poetic craft.  Of course with Coleridge, this is quite delicate and permits suspension of disbelief for the time being. 

Supernaturalism,  however,  may appear rather grossly in some literary works such as the Gothic romance of the eighteenth century and true horror tales of the Romantic Age. In Walpole,  Mrs. Radcliffe and Mary Shelly this sort of crude supernaturalism is exhibited.                                                     

readmore

There is a trend in modern literature to have recourse to the use of certain things or elements to represent or mark certain aspects or matters. The particular thing is the ' symbol' 'a rose' may well be used to indicate beauty, ' white' of 'purity'. These symbols may be used to indicate beauty and purity respectively. Similarly, any other element may be dexterously exploited symbolically by an author to express his her point of view or a certain shade of life, of course in a highly sophisticated manner. This trend is popularised as symbolism . This is a distinct feature particularly in Modern   English Poetry.  The English poetic recourse to symbolism is remarkably patent in Eliot's  The Waste Land, his Ariel Poems and a good many poems of W.B. Yeats.

Symbolism definitely leads to intricacy,  but,  at the same time, this proves engaging in the communication or manifestation of curtains poets or elements in a distinctly sophisticated manner.  Such a symbolic manner enhances the impressiveness another literary quality of the work concerned. 

The Symbolist Movement in Modern English Poetry appeared as a set of protest against the excessive romanticism of Georgian poetry at the early years of the twentieth century.  Of course, actually the symbolic movement started at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. The chief exponent of the movement were the poets of France, England and even America. A Good many poets started using symbols in their writings to express the complexity of modern life and society, in the world, lost in mechanism and commercialism.                                                                    

What is Symbolism/Symbolist Movement?

Literaturemini | February 24, 2021 | 0 comments

There is a trend in modern literature to have recourse to the use of certain things or elements to represent or mark certain aspects or matters. The particular thing is the ' symbol' 'a rose' may well be used to indicate beauty, ' white' of 'purity'. These symbols may be used to indicate beauty and purity respectively. Similarly, any other element may be dexterously exploited symbolically by an author to express his her point of view or a certain shade of life, of course in a highly sophisticated manner. This trend is popularised as symbolism . This is a distinct feature particularly in Modern   English Poetry.  The English poetic recourse to symbolism is remarkably patent in Eliot's  The Waste Land, his Ariel Poems and a good many poems of W.B. Yeats.

Symbolism definitely leads to intricacy,  but,  at the same time, this proves engaging in the communication or manifestation of curtains poets or elements in a distinctly sophisticated manner.  Such a symbolic manner enhances the impressiveness another literary quality of the work concerned. 

The Symbolist Movement in Modern English Poetry appeared as a set of protest against the excessive romanticism of Georgian poetry at the early years of the twentieth century.  Of course, actually the symbolic movement started at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. The chief exponent of the movement were the poets of France, England and even America. A Good many poets started using symbols in their writings to express the complexity of modern life and society, in the world, lost in mechanism and commercialism.                                                                    

readmore

This stands for the pattern or plan of structure whatever this may be. It donates how the structure of a work may be executed.  Of course, Structuralism is applicable to the structure of a building,  rather the architectural or constructive skrill involved.  In literature,  whatever the type may be,  prose, verse, or drama,  it is of a specific significance.  It determines significantly the character of  a literary work,  particularly in regard to its art of structure,  the harmonious blending of different materials to have a total effect to achieve impressiveness 

Structure is also related to the form of a literary work. After all a work of literature has a number of component parts and their proper arrangements or appropriate fittings constitute or determine its impressiveness. The order and shape , in appropriate proportions of different constituents,  enhance the beauty of the form which is also the structure. 

Structural elegance is really of much significance in a literary work,  although the structural design is found to differ from age in all matters - literary or mechanical. In the Aristotelian concept,  tragedy has a threefold structural division - the beginning,  the middle and the end.  In the Romantic plays of the Elizabethan age, the structural deviation results in the plays of five Acts. In the modern theatre,  the scope of the structural variation is found much widened from the one-act plays to the two,three, or four act plays. Structural diversifications are also distinctly marked in other literary forms,  such as odes, elegies, and sonnets.  There are regular odes as also irregular odes. While in the former class, each stanza has the structural balance in the presence of the equal number of lines,  in the latter class, there is marked a glaring irregularity in the number of lines in each stanza,  varying even,  as in Wordsworth's Immorality Ode,  from 8 lines to 39.                                                                               

What is Structuralism?

Literaturemini | February 23, 2021 | 0 comments

This stands for the pattern or plan of structure whatever this may be. It donates how the structure of a work may be executed.  Of course, Structuralism is applicable to the structure of a building,  rather the architectural or constructive skrill involved.  In literature,  whatever the type may be,  prose, verse, or drama,  it is of a specific significance.  It determines significantly the character of  a literary work,  particularly in regard to its art of structure,  the harmonious blending of different materials to have a total effect to achieve impressiveness 

Structure is also related to the form of a literary work. After all a work of literature has a number of component parts and their proper arrangements or appropriate fittings constitute or determine its impressiveness. The order and shape , in appropriate proportions of different constituents,  enhance the beauty of the form which is also the structure. 

Structural elegance is really of much significance in a literary work,  although the structural design is found to differ from age in all matters - literary or mechanical. In the Aristotelian concept,  tragedy has a threefold structural division - the beginning,  the middle and the end.  In the Romantic plays of the Elizabethan age, the structural deviation results in the plays of five Acts. In the modern theatre,  the scope of the structural variation is found much widened from the one-act plays to the two,three, or four act plays. Structural diversifications are also distinctly marked in other literary forms,  such as odes, elegies, and sonnets.  There are regular odes as also irregular odes. While in the former class, each stanza has the structural balance in the presence of the equal number of lines,  in the latter class, there is marked a glaring irregularity in the number of lines in each stanza,  varying even,  as in Wordsworth's Immorality Ode,  from 8 lines to 39.                                                                               

readmore

Humour is basically an intellectual element. But intellect is here found associated with feeling, with sensitiveness . It has a mellowed tone and affects equally mind and heart.  In fact,  in humour, sentiments and intellect are unified.  It is as much ' thinking in fun as feeling earnest' and realises the twofold  effect of comedy to give entertainment and to provoke thought. It makes the Comic Muse, as it were, good natured and magnanimous, and comedy turns into an affair of fancy as well as feeling. It provides the pure laughter of the comic proper with a serious undertone. 

Wit is a purely intellectual exercise, an intellectual triumph,  as it were. It causes laughter, Just as humour does. But the laughter that results from the play of wit id spectacular and superficial, while there is something deep and dignified in the laughter coming from humour. The delight that wit gives , evolves out of the combination of fancy and words,  but humour,  well defined as thinking in fun while feeling in earnest, delight as well as deepens the feeling of life.


Wit, in fact,  has much intellectual flash,  but no emotional depth. Of course, it is a quite effective and diverting force in stirring the comic. It id found to add much to the comic spirit and steers remarkably the element of laughter which is an essential requisite in the comic world. 


The comic refers to the sense of laughter as well as fun in which humour and wit are active participants. It is the spontaneous laughter without causing any harm or pain that constitutes the essence of the comic spirit.  Humour and wit,  well harmonised and applied, add much to this.                                                                

What is Humour, Wit and the Comic?

Literaturemini | February 23, 2021 | 0 comments

Humour is basically an intellectual element. But intellect is here found associated with feeling, with sensitiveness . It has a mellowed tone and affects equally mind and heart.  In fact,  in humour, sentiments and intellect are unified.  It is as much ' thinking in fun as feeling earnest' and realises the twofold  effect of comedy to give entertainment and to provoke thought. It makes the Comic Muse, as it were, good natured and magnanimous, and comedy turns into an affair of fancy as well as feeling. It provides the pure laughter of the comic proper with a serious undertone. 

Wit is a purely intellectual exercise, an intellectual triumph,  as it were. It causes laughter, Just as humour does. But the laughter that results from the play of wit id spectacular and superficial, while there is something deep and dignified in the laughter coming from humour. The delight that wit gives , evolves out of the combination of fancy and words,  but humour,  well defined as thinking in fun while feeling in earnest, delight as well as deepens the feeling of life.


Wit, in fact,  has much intellectual flash,  but no emotional depth. Of course, it is a quite effective and diverting force in stirring the comic. It id found to add much to the comic spirit and steers remarkably the element of laughter which is an essential requisite in the comic world. 


The comic refers to the sense of laughter as well as fun in which humour and wit are active participants. It is the spontaneous laughter without causing any harm or pain that constitutes the essence of the comic spirit.  Humour and wit,  well harmonised and applied, add much to this.                                                                

readmore
 
Back To Top