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In the development of Elizabethan prose, the Translation of the Bible or the Authorized Version of the Bible had a great influence. The task of translation was completed by the order of King James I in 1611. The need for a standard text was left at Hampton court in 1604. King James I was present at the conference and approved the project of translating the Bible. Forty-seven scholars were appointed for the task. They were divided into six companies, each receiving a certain portion of the Bible for translation. And each company revised the work of its fellow translators. The task began in 1607 and was completed in 1611. The Authorized Version became the most dominating prose work and the greatest of English translations. 

The important features of the Authorized Version are described below: 

Firstly, it is an actual translation work. The translators acknowledged in the preface to their work that their task was “to make a good one better or out of many good ones, one principal good one.” In other words, their task was one of selection and correction. Sometimes they relied on old fashioned style. As a result Hallam says, “it is not the English of Danie! or Bacon.” It abounds in “The old Testament, in obsolete phraseology”. However, the power and beauty of the Authorized Version or 1611 version, was acceptable and inevitable. The artistic beauty of the translation work was praiseworthy. 

Secondly, it is notable for its diversity. One can best appreciate the vastness, the variety and complexity of the Bible. It is not a single book but a complete literature or even two literatures. Because here we find that The New Testament is separated from The Old Testament. The different books of the Bible were composed at different times, and many hands worked at them. Their efforts resulted in a collection of literature-expository, narrative and lyrical. 

Thirdly, the Unity of the Work, The Bible is a collection of different Literary elements, In spite of diversity of sources, it has a remarkable uniformity. The core and substance is the belief and delight in the divine spirit. For the literary style, it owes to Tyndale and Miles Coverdale who abo translated the Bible, Before them Wycliff translated the Bible and he also influenced them. However from cover to cover it is firm, clear, simple, dignified and thoroughly English.

Fourthly, The Expository Portion of the Bible: From literary point of View, the expository point that contain advice, information etc. are of least importance, But in bulk they are considerable. They include “Book of Deuteronomy” in The Old Testament, The narration is expressed with Clearness, dignity and precision, 

Fifthly, the narrative portion: The narrative portions of the Bible are also bulk, but they are of a great interest and value. Stories from The Old Testament and The New Testament are depicted here. It seems that the narrative came under the influence of the Greek. However, the narrative portion was scholarly and liberal. 

Sixthly. Lyrical portion: The lyrical portions include psalms, song, the book of Job etc. This portion of the Bible has become important as literature, because of their emotional and rhythmic quality. The translation of the Bible was rhythmic like the old English poetry. The similes and metaphors are also used to express the emotions and feedings. There are descriptions about heavens, running waters and wild animals. In other words, the emotions are mystically and rapturously expressed. 

Lastly and finally, The Influence of the Bible: The English Bible has been a great influence on English literature, The poetical and proverbial nature of the translation have been expressed beautifully in the translation work of the Bible. Expressions from the Bible like a “broken reed”, “the eleventh hour”, “the thorn in the flesh”, ‘ta good samaritan”, “Sweat of Brow”, etc. have been widely used in English language. The style of the Bible also influenced the contemporary writers of the Elizabethan Age and the influence was all for the good. The simplicity, the dignity, and the elevation of the translation work of the Bible was followed by the writers in the succeeding ages. Bunyan, Bacon, Milton, Ruskin, Macaulay and Tennyson are some of the important writers in whom we apparently find the influence of the Bible. 

In conclusion it can be said that the translation of the Bible gave grace to the speech of unlettered and it entered into the style of the most ambitious writers. God Almighty brought the Bible from Heaven to the learned churchman and the Authorized Version brought the Bible from the learned churchmen to the ordinary people. 

Discuss the influence of the translation of the Bible on the development of prose

Green Land | February 21, 2024 | 0 comments

In the development of Elizabethan prose, the Translation of the Bible or the Authorized Version of the Bible had a great influence. The task of translation was completed by the order of King James I in 1611. The need for a standard text was left at Hampton court in 1604. King James I was present at the conference and approved the project of translating the Bible. Forty-seven scholars were appointed for the task. They were divided into six companies, each receiving a certain portion of the Bible for translation. And each company revised the work of its fellow translators. The task began in 1607 and was completed in 1611. The Authorized Version became the most dominating prose work and the greatest of English translations. 

The important features of the Authorized Version are described below: 

Firstly, it is an actual translation work. The translators acknowledged in the preface to their work that their task was “to make a good one better or out of many good ones, one principal good one.” In other words, their task was one of selection and correction. Sometimes they relied on old fashioned style. As a result Hallam says, “it is not the English of Danie! or Bacon.” It abounds in “The old Testament, in obsolete phraseology”. However, the power and beauty of the Authorized Version or 1611 version, was acceptable and inevitable. The artistic beauty of the translation work was praiseworthy. 

Secondly, it is notable for its diversity. One can best appreciate the vastness, the variety and complexity of the Bible. It is not a single book but a complete literature or even two literatures. Because here we find that The New Testament is separated from The Old Testament. The different books of the Bible were composed at different times, and many hands worked at them. Their efforts resulted in a collection of literature-expository, narrative and lyrical. 

Thirdly, the Unity of the Work, The Bible is a collection of different Literary elements, In spite of diversity of sources, it has a remarkable uniformity. The core and substance is the belief and delight in the divine spirit. For the literary style, it owes to Tyndale and Miles Coverdale who abo translated the Bible, Before them Wycliff translated the Bible and he also influenced them. However from cover to cover it is firm, clear, simple, dignified and thoroughly English.

Fourthly, The Expository Portion of the Bible: From literary point of View, the expository point that contain advice, information etc. are of least importance, But in bulk they are considerable. They include “Book of Deuteronomy” in The Old Testament, The narration is expressed with Clearness, dignity and precision, 

Fifthly, the narrative portion: The narrative portions of the Bible are also bulk, but they are of a great interest and value. Stories from The Old Testament and The New Testament are depicted here. It seems that the narrative came under the influence of the Greek. However, the narrative portion was scholarly and liberal. 

Sixthly. Lyrical portion: The lyrical portions include psalms, song, the book of Job etc. This portion of the Bible has become important as literature, because of their emotional and rhythmic quality. The translation of the Bible was rhythmic like the old English poetry. The similes and metaphors are also used to express the emotions and feedings. There are descriptions about heavens, running waters and wild animals. In other words, the emotions are mystically and rapturously expressed. 

Lastly and finally, The Influence of the Bible: The English Bible has been a great influence on English literature, The poetical and proverbial nature of the translation have been expressed beautifully in the translation work of the Bible. Expressions from the Bible like a “broken reed”, “the eleventh hour”, “the thorn in the flesh”, ‘ta good samaritan”, “Sweat of Brow”, etc. have been widely used in English language. The style of the Bible also influenced the contemporary writers of the Elizabethan Age and the influence was all for the good. The simplicity, the dignity, and the elevation of the translation work of the Bible was followed by the writers in the succeeding ages. Bunyan, Bacon, Milton, Ruskin, Macaulay and Tennyson are some of the important writers in whom we apparently find the influence of the Bible. 

In conclusion it can be said that the translation of the Bible gave grace to the speech of unlettered and it entered into the style of the most ambitious writers. God Almighty brought the Bible from Heaven to the learned churchman and the Authorized Version brought the Bible from the learned churchmen to the ordinary people. 

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The literary works of Alexander Pope are found to cover a long period, from 1709 to 1743, during which may be traced three distinct stages of his authorship. Each stage, however, bears testimony to his excellence as well as originality as a literary master. 

The first stage, which is mainly the formative but most active literary period of Pope’s workmanship, consists of several publications—Pastorals, An Essay on Criticism, The Rape of the Lock, The Windsor Forest, The Temple of Fame, Verses to the Memory of an unfortunate Lady and many other shorter works, of those works, The Rape of the Lock is a consummate expression of Pope’s genius as an artist and satirist, While A Essay on Criticism proves a fine collection of literary epigrams. 

The second stage reveals Pope mainly as a great master in translations and annotations. The literary production of the age comprises the translation of the Iliad and the Odyssey, the annotations of the works of Shakespeare and of John Sheffield. Besides, Epistles to Addison, and Miscellanies, containing certain critical works of Pope, belong to this stage. 

The third stage marks Pope’s celebrated satirical works and includes The Dunciad, Moral Essays, An Essay on Man, Satires and Epistles of Horace Imitated, Esisttes to Arbuthnot. The Dunciad is a great satire on the literary men of the age, and An Essay on Man forms a rich storehouse of popular and epigrammatic sayings in the English language. 

Pope’s earlier poems are notable for their metrical smoothness and perfection and for certain passages of pleasant fancy. His notable work An Essay on Criticism contains little original thought. It sums up the art of poetry as taught first by Horace and the seventeenth century classicists. It testifies to Pope’s meticulous care for rules, Nature and wit in poetry. Pope’s heroic couplet is here polished, incisive and antithetical. Widson Forest has some fine passages and presents a great advance on the earlier Pastorals. But these are imitative of Roman writers like Virgil and Theocritus. They are stiff and artificial. 

In 1712 Pope published the first draft of The Rape of the Lock—a poem celebrating in light and spirited mock heroic verse, the exploits of a certain Lord Petre who had cut a lock from the hair of the beautiful Arabella Fermore. We may agree with Dr. Johnson “that The Rape of the Lock is the most airy, most ingenious and the most delightful of all Pope’s compositions.” The poem is notable for it expresses the artificial life of the age: the life of cards, parties, toilets, lapdogs, tea-drinking, snuff taking, and idle vanities. It marks the excellence of mock-heroic art. It has the epic devices of Invocation, supernatural agencies, epic battle, descent to the underground etc. There is maximum imitation of the epic. The contrast between the slight subject and the epic style produces the humour. The feud between two families is ridiculed and settled. 

The Traslation of Homer’s Iliad brought Pope both fame and money. The success of the book consisted in the fact that Pope interpreted Homer in the elegant artificial language of his time. Pope translated also half of the Odyssey. 

Pope directed his next work The Dunciad against his rivals. It is an elaborate satire on the dunces—the bad poets, pedants and pretensious critics of Pope’s day. His main target of attack was Theobald who criticized his edition of Shakespeare. Pope satirizes the host of minor writers. This poe™ in changed with biting wit; it has vigour and variety of pace, but is spiteful and often coarse. 

An Essay on Man is a poem in four epistles in which Pope undertakes a defence of moral evil in it. The work is, however, the influence of his "ends and specially of Lord Bolingbroke, Other Moral Essays are philosophical poems-To Lord Bathurst, Of the Use of Riches, Of the Knowledge and Characters of Men, of the Characters of Women. 

The best of Pope's later works consists of his epistles and satires in imitation of Horace. In Epistles to Dr. Arbuthnot, he attacks many of his contemporaries—Hervey, Halifax, Theobald etc. He indulges in self-laudation. It is a Horatian satire, but in its malicious attacks and moral indignation K is close to Juvenal. It contains brilliant portraits of Lord Hervey and Addison. His couplet here has all its old strength, together with a certain new ease and flexibility. 

Pope represents many essential qualities of his age. He imitated the ancients and insisted on the rules of poetry thoroughly in accordance with the spirit of the age. He is marvelously clever and adroit literary craftsman and has perfected the neat, compact and epigrammatic style of writing which was the classical ideal of writing. Pope makes poetry out of the most polished drawing room manners. It is from this point of view-the point of view of perfect craftsmanship and a clear, intelligible, well-written and yet telling manner of expression that Pope should be assessed as a poet. 

As a writer of Prose, Pope’s position is not at all ignorable in English literature. His genius, as s prose writer, is even admitted by Matthew Amold who does not hold much high opinion about the poetry—“Dryden and Pope are not the classics of our poetry; they use the classics of our prose.” His masterly style in the sphere of English prose is sufficiently demonstrated in his Preface to the the Iliad, Dedication of the Hiad, Preface to the Works of Shakespeare and Letters. 

In fine we can say that Pope is the foremost of the correct and classical poets of England. He stands firmly as the mouthpiece of the age. In Pope we find a poet who thoroughly belongs to his age and possesses the secret of the mt to express perfectly the feeling and thought of the age. Pope is found to be a unique master.

Write a note on the works of Alexander Pope

Green Land | February 20, 2024 | 0 comments

The literary works of Alexander Pope are found to cover a long period, from 1709 to 1743, during which may be traced three distinct stages of his authorship. Each stage, however, bears testimony to his excellence as well as originality as a literary master. 

The first stage, which is mainly the formative but most active literary period of Pope’s workmanship, consists of several publications—Pastorals, An Essay on Criticism, The Rape of the Lock, The Windsor Forest, The Temple of Fame, Verses to the Memory of an unfortunate Lady and many other shorter works, of those works, The Rape of the Lock is a consummate expression of Pope’s genius as an artist and satirist, While A Essay on Criticism proves a fine collection of literary epigrams. 

The second stage reveals Pope mainly as a great master in translations and annotations. The literary production of the age comprises the translation of the Iliad and the Odyssey, the annotations of the works of Shakespeare and of John Sheffield. Besides, Epistles to Addison, and Miscellanies, containing certain critical works of Pope, belong to this stage. 

The third stage marks Pope’s celebrated satirical works and includes The Dunciad, Moral Essays, An Essay on Man, Satires and Epistles of Horace Imitated, Esisttes to Arbuthnot. The Dunciad is a great satire on the literary men of the age, and An Essay on Man forms a rich storehouse of popular and epigrammatic sayings in the English language. 

Pope’s earlier poems are notable for their metrical smoothness and perfection and for certain passages of pleasant fancy. His notable work An Essay on Criticism contains little original thought. It sums up the art of poetry as taught first by Horace and the seventeenth century classicists. It testifies to Pope’s meticulous care for rules, Nature and wit in poetry. Pope’s heroic couplet is here polished, incisive and antithetical. Widson Forest has some fine passages and presents a great advance on the earlier Pastorals. But these are imitative of Roman writers like Virgil and Theocritus. They are stiff and artificial. 

In 1712 Pope published the first draft of The Rape of the Lock—a poem celebrating in light and spirited mock heroic verse, the exploits of a certain Lord Petre who had cut a lock from the hair of the beautiful Arabella Fermore. We may agree with Dr. Johnson “that The Rape of the Lock is the most airy, most ingenious and the most delightful of all Pope’s compositions.” The poem is notable for it expresses the artificial life of the age: the life of cards, parties, toilets, lapdogs, tea-drinking, snuff taking, and idle vanities. It marks the excellence of mock-heroic art. It has the epic devices of Invocation, supernatural agencies, epic battle, descent to the underground etc. There is maximum imitation of the epic. The contrast between the slight subject and the epic style produces the humour. The feud between two families is ridiculed and settled. 

The Traslation of Homer’s Iliad brought Pope both fame and money. The success of the book consisted in the fact that Pope interpreted Homer in the elegant artificial language of his time. Pope translated also half of the Odyssey. 

Pope directed his next work The Dunciad against his rivals. It is an elaborate satire on the dunces—the bad poets, pedants and pretensious critics of Pope’s day. His main target of attack was Theobald who criticized his edition of Shakespeare. Pope satirizes the host of minor writers. This poe™ in changed with biting wit; it has vigour and variety of pace, but is spiteful and often coarse. 

An Essay on Man is a poem in four epistles in which Pope undertakes a defence of moral evil in it. The work is, however, the influence of his "ends and specially of Lord Bolingbroke, Other Moral Essays are philosophical poems-To Lord Bathurst, Of the Use of Riches, Of the Knowledge and Characters of Men, of the Characters of Women. 

The best of Pope's later works consists of his epistles and satires in imitation of Horace. In Epistles to Dr. Arbuthnot, he attacks many of his contemporaries—Hervey, Halifax, Theobald etc. He indulges in self-laudation. It is a Horatian satire, but in its malicious attacks and moral indignation K is close to Juvenal. It contains brilliant portraits of Lord Hervey and Addison. His couplet here has all its old strength, together with a certain new ease and flexibility. 

Pope represents many essential qualities of his age. He imitated the ancients and insisted on the rules of poetry thoroughly in accordance with the spirit of the age. He is marvelously clever and adroit literary craftsman and has perfected the neat, compact and epigrammatic style of writing which was the classical ideal of writing. Pope makes poetry out of the most polished drawing room manners. It is from this point of view-the point of view of perfect craftsmanship and a clear, intelligible, well-written and yet telling manner of expression that Pope should be assessed as a poet. 

As a writer of Prose, Pope’s position is not at all ignorable in English literature. His genius, as s prose writer, is even admitted by Matthew Amold who does not hold much high opinion about the poetry—“Dryden and Pope are not the classics of our poetry; they use the classics of our prose.” His masterly style in the sphere of English prose is sufficiently demonstrated in his Preface to the the Iliad, Dedication of the Hiad, Preface to the Works of Shakespeare and Letters. 

In fine we can say that Pope is the foremost of the correct and classical poets of England. He stands firmly as the mouthpiece of the age. In Pope we find a poet who thoroughly belongs to his age and possesses the secret of the mt to express perfectly the feeling and thought of the age. Pope is found to be a unique master.

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19th century novel achieves full respectability with George Eliot. Yet the master of early Victorian novelists was Charles Dickens. The success of his books depend on their quality of comedy and pathos and their attacks on public abuses. Dickens entertains everybody. His novels came out originally not in book form but in parts in an illustrated monthly magazine. They were read aloud in the family. Some of his novels were staged and were adapted to film and musical performance. His successful novels are “Pickwick Paper”, “David Copperfield”, “Bleak House”, “Our Mutual Friend”, “Great Expectations” etc. The “Pickwick Paper” is the story of an office boy who contracts to get a job as a reporter on a London daily newspaper. He travelled England by coach writing news reports to drawings and also sketches. The story is important for its comic and pathetic incidents. He was a dramatic writer. 

“David Copperfield” is his most delightful book. It is an autobiographical fairy tale. We share the view points both of child and adult. We see Dickens’s smile and pity. We experience Steerforth’s seductiveness to David. 

“Bleak House” is the best integrated book. The plot has two main lines. The chancery case of the estate of Jarndyce and Jarndyce so iong drawn out that caused absorb all the benefits and the discovery that the orphan Esther Summerson is the illegitimate child supposed dead of Lady Deadlock. The saintly Esther is to marry John Jarndyce for whom she keeps house but he releases her to marry a young doctor. Dickens created Jot of characters in this novel. The home of Esther is to set up with her doctor. The narration conveys many symbols, metaphors, fables of good and bad. We find various bleak houses in the novel. 

“Our Mutual friend” introduces three subjects in the first three chapters of the novel that is the recovery of a body from the Thames, the Veneering’s dinner party and Sylas with his wooden legs. The themes always do not hold together but Dickens’s parts are better than other writers whole. This novel important for it’s narration of every part. The wit and satire of the novel make it a Victorian novel. Dickens’s “Hard Times” is a satire on the industrial life and the government policies. 

“Great Expectations” combines narrative and analysis. It is a story with single focus of consciousness. 

“Expectations are thirst on Pip. Pip is a little boy brought up by his harsh sister who was the wife of a simple blacksmith. Pip is given money from a mysterious source. He imagines Miss Havisham to be his benefactor. Pip rises in the world turns his head. In London he embarrassed by his brother in-law Joe. Miss Havisham trained up beautiful Estella to take revenge on men. Estella chooses to marry Pip’s rival who his social superior. The story of “Great Expectations” is not only important for Pip’s great expectation but also Dickens’s style. Dickens’s simile is like Homer’s simile in the “Hiad”. 

ln a sense “Great Expectations” is a romantic autobiography. Dickens combines myth making with a world of experience. Charles Dickens is a pre-eminently the novelist of London and lower middle class people. He portrayed the life of London street and middie class people. He was a painter of London life. His novels focus the realistic picture of London life that is the social, political and the life of industrial revolution. Dickens shows man woman to be struggling together for the welfare of society. Dickens appears as a moralist as well as a social reformer. He is interested in the problem rather than the incidents. He doesn’t portray rather comic and humorous character with a touch of pathos.In fact Dickens  is not only a representative novelist of Victorian age but also a typical Victorian  novelist.

Write a note on Dickens's novel

Green Land | February 19, 2024 | 0 comments

19th century novel achieves full respectability with George Eliot. Yet the master of early Victorian novelists was Charles Dickens. The success of his books depend on their quality of comedy and pathos and their attacks on public abuses. Dickens entertains everybody. His novels came out originally not in book form but in parts in an illustrated monthly magazine. They were read aloud in the family. Some of his novels were staged and were adapted to film and musical performance. His successful novels are “Pickwick Paper”, “David Copperfield”, “Bleak House”, “Our Mutual Friend”, “Great Expectations” etc. The “Pickwick Paper” is the story of an office boy who contracts to get a job as a reporter on a London daily newspaper. He travelled England by coach writing news reports to drawings and also sketches. The story is important for its comic and pathetic incidents. He was a dramatic writer. 

“David Copperfield” is his most delightful book. It is an autobiographical fairy tale. We share the view points both of child and adult. We see Dickens’s smile and pity. We experience Steerforth’s seductiveness to David. 

“Bleak House” is the best integrated book. The plot has two main lines. The chancery case of the estate of Jarndyce and Jarndyce so iong drawn out that caused absorb all the benefits and the discovery that the orphan Esther Summerson is the illegitimate child supposed dead of Lady Deadlock. The saintly Esther is to marry John Jarndyce for whom she keeps house but he releases her to marry a young doctor. Dickens created Jot of characters in this novel. The home of Esther is to set up with her doctor. The narration conveys many symbols, metaphors, fables of good and bad. We find various bleak houses in the novel. 

“Our Mutual friend” introduces three subjects in the first three chapters of the novel that is the recovery of a body from the Thames, the Veneering’s dinner party and Sylas with his wooden legs. The themes always do not hold together but Dickens’s parts are better than other writers whole. This novel important for it’s narration of every part. The wit and satire of the novel make it a Victorian novel. Dickens’s “Hard Times” is a satire on the industrial life and the government policies. 

“Great Expectations” combines narrative and analysis. It is a story with single focus of consciousness. 

“Expectations are thirst on Pip. Pip is a little boy brought up by his harsh sister who was the wife of a simple blacksmith. Pip is given money from a mysterious source. He imagines Miss Havisham to be his benefactor. Pip rises in the world turns his head. In London he embarrassed by his brother in-law Joe. Miss Havisham trained up beautiful Estella to take revenge on men. Estella chooses to marry Pip’s rival who his social superior. The story of “Great Expectations” is not only important for Pip’s great expectation but also Dickens’s style. Dickens’s simile is like Homer’s simile in the “Hiad”. 

ln a sense “Great Expectations” is a romantic autobiography. Dickens combines myth making with a world of experience. Charles Dickens is a pre-eminently the novelist of London and lower middle class people. He portrayed the life of London street and middie class people. He was a painter of London life. His novels focus the realistic picture of London life that is the social, political and the life of industrial revolution. Dickens shows man woman to be struggling together for the welfare of society. Dickens appears as a moralist as well as a social reformer. He is interested in the problem rather than the incidents. He doesn’t portray rather comic and humorous character with a touch of pathos.In fact Dickens  is not only a representative novelist of Victorian age but also a typical Victorian  novelist.

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The world of Shakespeare is the most interesting literary world in English literature. After the Greek and Roman dramatists Shakespeare is the greatest playwright who created a world of imagination and insight that remains unique till today. 

There is endless discussion concerning the plays that are usually accepted as being Shakespeare. All the manuscripts of his plays have perished. Shakespeare himself printed none of the texts. His plays appeared singly in quarto during his lifetime and they were all unauthorized editions. In 1623 seven years after his death the first folio edition was printed. It contains 36 plays and these are now universally accepted as Shakespeare’s. In the folio edition, the plays are not arranged chronologically, nor are the dates of composition given. The dates of the Quarto’s are registered at Stationer’s Hall, but these are the dates of printing. To a discussion of Shakespearean drama, one of the fundamental tasks is the evidence about the dates of publication of his dramas and the evidence can be divided into three groups

1) Contemporary references 

2) Internal references 

3)The literary evidence 

In fact, the dates of Quarto’s were by far the most reliable evidence. If we examine his plays the construction of the plots, the style, we find that his sentences are full of closely packed ideas. There are changes of thought, but the style is rich in imagery. Most of his plays have prose in the middle. His great plays amply illustrate his literary genius. His plays like Love’s Labour’s Lost, Julius Caesar, The Winter’s Tale, A Mid Summer Night’s Dream are some of his early place. These plays are relatively ornamental. 

Classification of Shakespeare’s Plays:

Shakespeare’s plays are classified into different categories. These are the following: 

1. The Early Comedies : 

The early comedies of Shakespeare were immature plays. In these immature plays the plots are less original, the characters less finished, and the style lacks the power of the mature Shakespeare. They are full of wit and wordplay, usually put into the mouths of young gallants, but after the humour is puerile and the wit degenerates into mere verbal quibbling. Of this type are The Comedy of Errors, Love's Labour's Lost and The Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

2) The English Histories: 

These plays show a rapid maturing of Shakespeare's technique. He now begins to busy himself with developing characters, such as Richard II or Prince Hal. He shows clearly the importance attached in his day to the throne, and the contemporary desire for stable government, Figures like Falstaff illustrate their increasing depth of characterization, and the mingling of low life with Chronicle history is an important innovation. The plays in this group, to which belong Richard II , O’ Henry 1V, 2 Henry IV and Henry V, contain much more blank verse than those of the earlier group. 

3) The Mature Comedies: 

Here is the fine flower of Shakespeare’: comic genius. The comic spirit manifests itself at many levels—the sophisticated wit of Beatrice and Benedict or the clowning of Dogberry and Verges in Much Ado about Nothing; the jovial good humour of Sir Toby Belch in Twelfth Night; the lighter clowning of Lancelot Gobbo in The Merchant of Venice; the Urbane worldly-wise humour of ‘Touchstone in As You Like it. The plays are full of vitality, contain. many truly comic situations and reveal great warmth and humanity. In this group there is much prose. 

4) The Sombre Plays: 

In this group there are, All’s Well that Ends Well, Measure  for Measure and Troilus and Cressida. Though comedies in the sense that they end ‘happily’, their tone is sombre and tragic. They reflect a cynical, disillusioned attitude to life and a fondness for objectionable characters and situations. In them Shakespeare displays a savage desire to expose the falsity of romance and to show the sordid reality of life. 

5) The Great Tragedies: 

Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth and King Lear are the climax of Shakespeare’s art. In intensity of emotion, depth of psychological insight and power of style they stand supreme. 

6) The Roman Plays: 

These are based on North’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives, and though written at wide intervals, are usually considered as a group. Julius Caesar, contemporary with the English histories, shows the same concern with political security, and in its depth of character study is approaching the great tragedies. Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus follow the great tragic period, and Antony and Cleopatra in soaring imagination and tragic power, is truly great, both of them show some relaxation of tragic intensity. 

7) The Last plays : 

A mellowed maturity is the chief feature of this group, which contains Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest. The creative touch of the dramatist, making living men out of figment, is abundantly in view; the style is notable and serenely adequate; and with the ease of the master the author thoroughly subdues the metre to his will. No more fitting conclusion—rich, ample and graciously dignified—could be found to round off the work of our greatest literary genius than these plays of reconciliation and forgiveness.

In fact Shakespeare was a born genius and he is the world’s greatest immortal poet and dramatist. In spite of some difficulties drama reached its Climax in the hand of Shakespeare during the Elizabethan period. 

Write a note on the classification of Shakespearean drama

Green Land | February 18, 2024 | 0 comments

The world of Shakespeare is the most interesting literary world in English literature. After the Greek and Roman dramatists Shakespeare is the greatest playwright who created a world of imagination and insight that remains unique till today. 

There is endless discussion concerning the plays that are usually accepted as being Shakespeare. All the manuscripts of his plays have perished. Shakespeare himself printed none of the texts. His plays appeared singly in quarto during his lifetime and they were all unauthorized editions. In 1623 seven years after his death the first folio edition was printed. It contains 36 plays and these are now universally accepted as Shakespeare’s. In the folio edition, the plays are not arranged chronologically, nor are the dates of composition given. The dates of the Quarto’s are registered at Stationer’s Hall, but these are the dates of printing. To a discussion of Shakespearean drama, one of the fundamental tasks is the evidence about the dates of publication of his dramas and the evidence can be divided into three groups

1) Contemporary references 

2) Internal references 

3)The literary evidence 

In fact, the dates of Quarto’s were by far the most reliable evidence. If we examine his plays the construction of the plots, the style, we find that his sentences are full of closely packed ideas. There are changes of thought, but the style is rich in imagery. Most of his plays have prose in the middle. His great plays amply illustrate his literary genius. His plays like Love’s Labour’s Lost, Julius Caesar, The Winter’s Tale, A Mid Summer Night’s Dream are some of his early place. These plays are relatively ornamental. 

Classification of Shakespeare’s Plays:

Shakespeare’s plays are classified into different categories. These are the following: 

1. The Early Comedies : 

The early comedies of Shakespeare were immature plays. In these immature plays the plots are less original, the characters less finished, and the style lacks the power of the mature Shakespeare. They are full of wit and wordplay, usually put into the mouths of young gallants, but after the humour is puerile and the wit degenerates into mere verbal quibbling. Of this type are The Comedy of Errors, Love's Labour's Lost and The Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

2) The English Histories: 

These plays show a rapid maturing of Shakespeare's technique. He now begins to busy himself with developing characters, such as Richard II or Prince Hal. He shows clearly the importance attached in his day to the throne, and the contemporary desire for stable government, Figures like Falstaff illustrate their increasing depth of characterization, and the mingling of low life with Chronicle history is an important innovation. The plays in this group, to which belong Richard II , O’ Henry 1V, 2 Henry IV and Henry V, contain much more blank verse than those of the earlier group. 

3) The Mature Comedies: 

Here is the fine flower of Shakespeare’: comic genius. The comic spirit manifests itself at many levels—the sophisticated wit of Beatrice and Benedict or the clowning of Dogberry and Verges in Much Ado about Nothing; the jovial good humour of Sir Toby Belch in Twelfth Night; the lighter clowning of Lancelot Gobbo in The Merchant of Venice; the Urbane worldly-wise humour of ‘Touchstone in As You Like it. The plays are full of vitality, contain. many truly comic situations and reveal great warmth and humanity. In this group there is much prose. 

4) The Sombre Plays: 

In this group there are, All’s Well that Ends Well, Measure  for Measure and Troilus and Cressida. Though comedies in the sense that they end ‘happily’, their tone is sombre and tragic. They reflect a cynical, disillusioned attitude to life and a fondness for objectionable characters and situations. In them Shakespeare displays a savage desire to expose the falsity of romance and to show the sordid reality of life. 

5) The Great Tragedies: 

Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth and King Lear are the climax of Shakespeare’s art. In intensity of emotion, depth of psychological insight and power of style they stand supreme. 

6) The Roman Plays: 

These are based on North’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives, and though written at wide intervals, are usually considered as a group. Julius Caesar, contemporary with the English histories, shows the same concern with political security, and in its depth of character study is approaching the great tragedies. Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus follow the great tragic period, and Antony and Cleopatra in soaring imagination and tragic power, is truly great, both of them show some relaxation of tragic intensity. 

7) The Last plays : 

A mellowed maturity is the chief feature of this group, which contains Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest. The creative touch of the dramatist, making living men out of figment, is abundantly in view; the style is notable and serenely adequate; and with the ease of the master the author thoroughly subdues the metre to his will. No more fitting conclusion—rich, ample and graciously dignified—could be found to round off the work of our greatest literary genius than these plays of reconciliation and forgiveness.

In fact Shakespeare was a born genius and he is the world’s greatest immortal poet and dramatist. In spite of some difficulties drama reached its Climax in the hand of Shakespeare during the Elizabethan period. 

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The dark or sombre comedies of Shakespeare include All's well That Ends well, Measure for Measure, and Troilus and Cressida. Though comedies in the sense that they end ‘happily’, their tone is sombre and tragic. They reflect a cynical, disillusioned attitude to life, and a fondness for objectionable characters and situations. In them Shakespeare displays a savage desire to expose the falsity of romance and to show the sordid reality of life. 

Troilus and Cressida, All's well that Ends Well, Measure for Measure are known as dark or sombre or gloomy comedies because of certain features which mark off from other comedies. It may be assumed that these plays were composed later than the early and the middle comedies culminating in Twelfth Night during the period when Shakespeare was engaged in grappling with the problem of evil in four mature comedies. For these plays, though they are ordinarily classed as comedies, have a touch of sombreness and cynicism which are expected from tragedies. 

In Troilus and Cressida, both the ancient Greek ideal of heroism and the medieval ideal of romantic love are ridiculed in foul language. Shakespeare shows that heroes are no more than beasts and their ideals are hollow. 

All’s well that Ends well and Measure for Measure represent women in sexual relationships with unwilling husbands who do not know who their partners are. These plays are realistic in the sense that in them Shakespeare shows a tendency to reveal the more revolting aspects of life. Achilles and Ajax are superhuman personages but Shakespeare lays stress on the subhuman beastiality lurking behind their mask of greatness. Shakespeare seems to discover the comedy in a vulgar world where honour and dignity fetch a low price. Helena has to employ her extraordinary power to get a scamp of a husband, and Isabella can gain her brother’s life and save her own honour by devising a plan for accommodating a lecherous man, Shakespeare draws the picture of a world in which vice retains all its foulness but is partly redeemed when given its proper place in a larger scheme of things. It shows both the light and shade of human life. 

These plays are called dark comedies or sombre comedies because they have nothing of the gay spirit of comedy and describe dark aspects of life and reveal a mood of cynicism. In Measure for Measure, Angelo, the Duke demands sexual relationship with Isabella as a price for saving her brother’s life. Claudio, the brother wants his sister to sacrifice her honour. Isabell saves her honour by substituting Marina for herself in Angelo’s bed. Marina is Angelo’s wife. The darkness is redeemed by the punishment that overtaxes the wrong-doers and by the mercy that permeates the play. 

In All's well that Ends well, Helena is in love with a haughty youngman, Bertram. Bertram unwillingly marries her at the king’s command, but he seduces her hostess’s daughter Diana in Florence and persuades her to take her place in bed at night. She is got with child by Bertram, and secures his ring in exchange for one given her by the king. She is thus able to claim Bertram as her husband. 

Thus the wives have to adopt tricks to vindicate their positions. The comic is derived form the juxtaposition of different attitudes. Its tragic undertone and bitter satire distinguish these plays from comedy. These plays including Hamlet are known as problem plays. Shakespeare introduces us to an artificial rotten society and suggests problems. But Shakespeare keeps the audience in a stage of unresolved mystery. 

In conclusion we can say that the dask or sombre comedies are not light and comic but serious and cynical. In these comedies Shakespeare stopped taking interest in light, comic and exciting events of life and history and penetrated the human heart and brought out the hidden weaknesses and worthiness of human nature. 

Write a note on Shakespeare's dark or sombre comedies

Green Land | February 18, 2024 | 0 comments

The dark or sombre comedies of Shakespeare include All's well That Ends well, Measure for Measure, and Troilus and Cressida. Though comedies in the sense that they end ‘happily’, their tone is sombre and tragic. They reflect a cynical, disillusioned attitude to life, and a fondness for objectionable characters and situations. In them Shakespeare displays a savage desire to expose the falsity of romance and to show the sordid reality of life. 

Troilus and Cressida, All's well that Ends Well, Measure for Measure are known as dark or sombre or gloomy comedies because of certain features which mark off from other comedies. It may be assumed that these plays were composed later than the early and the middle comedies culminating in Twelfth Night during the period when Shakespeare was engaged in grappling with the problem of evil in four mature comedies. For these plays, though they are ordinarily classed as comedies, have a touch of sombreness and cynicism which are expected from tragedies. 

In Troilus and Cressida, both the ancient Greek ideal of heroism and the medieval ideal of romantic love are ridiculed in foul language. Shakespeare shows that heroes are no more than beasts and their ideals are hollow. 

All’s well that Ends well and Measure for Measure represent women in sexual relationships with unwilling husbands who do not know who their partners are. These plays are realistic in the sense that in them Shakespeare shows a tendency to reveal the more revolting aspects of life. Achilles and Ajax are superhuman personages but Shakespeare lays stress on the subhuman beastiality lurking behind their mask of greatness. Shakespeare seems to discover the comedy in a vulgar world where honour and dignity fetch a low price. Helena has to employ her extraordinary power to get a scamp of a husband, and Isabella can gain her brother’s life and save her own honour by devising a plan for accommodating a lecherous man, Shakespeare draws the picture of a world in which vice retains all its foulness but is partly redeemed when given its proper place in a larger scheme of things. It shows both the light and shade of human life. 

These plays are called dark comedies or sombre comedies because they have nothing of the gay spirit of comedy and describe dark aspects of life and reveal a mood of cynicism. In Measure for Measure, Angelo, the Duke demands sexual relationship with Isabella as a price for saving her brother’s life. Claudio, the brother wants his sister to sacrifice her honour. Isabell saves her honour by substituting Marina for herself in Angelo’s bed. Marina is Angelo’s wife. The darkness is redeemed by the punishment that overtaxes the wrong-doers and by the mercy that permeates the play. 

In All's well that Ends well, Helena is in love with a haughty youngman, Bertram. Bertram unwillingly marries her at the king’s command, but he seduces her hostess’s daughter Diana in Florence and persuades her to take her place in bed at night. She is got with child by Bertram, and secures his ring in exchange for one given her by the king. She is thus able to claim Bertram as her husband. 

Thus the wives have to adopt tricks to vindicate their positions. The comic is derived form the juxtaposition of different attitudes. Its tragic undertone and bitter satire distinguish these plays from comedy. These plays including Hamlet are known as problem plays. Shakespeare introduces us to an artificial rotten society and suggests problems. But Shakespeare keeps the audience in a stage of unresolved mystery. 

In conclusion we can say that the dask or sombre comedies are not light and comic but serious and cynical. In these comedies Shakespeare stopped taking interest in light, comic and exciting events of life and history and penetrated the human heart and brought out the hidden weaknesses and worthiness of human nature. 

readmore
 
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