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Dylan Thomas is undoubtedly one of the leading modern poets in English literature. His poems contain some of the basic features of modernism. Though he was not directly related to modern literary movements like surrealism, expressionism or imagist movement, his poetry reflects many of the vital elements of those new trends. In the Fem Hill" his portrayal of the childhood symbolizes an inward journey a modern poet through the corridor of memory for a paradise far from of the decay and degeneration of the contemporary world. Both thematically and structurally this poem can claim to be the representative modern poem.

Modernism  involves a deliberate and radical break with the traditional bases of western culture. The traditional structures of society held by religion, morality and conventional values are being questioned in modern literature. Especially after the First World War man's faith in traditional society and institutions was totally jolted. T. S. Eliot has portrayed in his poems 'the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history'. Dylan Thomas has not been openly critical of his age. However, his poems convey the central features of the new type of poetry. Even in his treatment- of religion Dylan has brought out new ideas. For example, in the picture of childhood we find the religious connotation in the following lines: And the Sabbath rang slowly In the pebbles of the holy streams.

When Sunday came the boy heard the ringing of the church bells which mixed with the sound of the water flowed over the pebbles of the streams. The combination of church bells and streams imply that the divine glory mingled with the innocent joys of childhood made the childhood holier. This touch of religion is more pagan than Christian. Here we notice his attempt to create personal myths out of the old religious terms. Treatment of faith in this manner is an element of modernism.

Dylan Thomas is modern because of his poetic technique. In his 'Fern Hill' he has experimented with different forms, words and images.He gives newness to the much used phrases as in 'below a time", "happy as the grass was green' or 'all the sun long'. In the same way he gives new shape to the stanzas challenging all traditional stanza forms. In "Fem Hill" the stanzas have the shape of flying birds that imitates the flying imagination of the boy. All these are examples of experimentalism which is another feature of modernism.

Apparent obscurity is another feature of modern poetry. In fact, modern poems have so many levels of meanings that sometimes they appear almost incomprehensible. "Fern Hill" also seems obscure because of the elements of surrealism and personal fantasy. Here owls, Thomas gives a surrealistic description of child's fantasies which are unchained by the values of adulthood. The boy's fantasies about nights, night jars and horses presented in a way that seems obscure This is because Thomas takes his style near to the thinking of a child. Things exist only for 'him' and when he is unconscious they do not exist at all. Consequently, it has become obscure, one of the main features of modernism.

Still another feature of modernism is expressionism that we find in "Fern Hill". Expressionism is a movement or tendency that strives to express subjective feelings and emotions rather than to depict reality or nature objectively. In this poem Dylan Thomas has tried to present an emotional experience in its most compelling form. He is not concerned with reality as it appears but with its inner nature and with the emotions dormant in it. To achieve these ends, the childhood in "Fern Hill" is abundantly exaggerated, magnified, or otherwise altered in order to stress the emotional experience in its most intense and concentrated form. In this poem in true expressionistic manner the poet has brought out the uncommon vigour, energy, warmth and vitality of childhood,

As a modern poet Dylan Thomas has combined most of the basic features of modernism. In the 'Fern Hill' we find his finest craftsmanship in the blending of expressionism, experimental images. surrealism, creation of personal myths and unconventional word choice These modern elements have perfected his magic of poetic skill in the "Fern Hill".

Find out the elements of modernism in Thomas's "Fern Hill"

Green Land | June 20, 2021 | 0 comments

Dylan Thomas is undoubtedly one of the leading modern poets in English literature. His poems contain some of the basic features of modernism. Though he was not directly related to modern literary movements like surrealism, expressionism or imagist movement, his poetry reflects many of the vital elements of those new trends. In the Fem Hill" his portrayal of the childhood symbolizes an inward journey a modern poet through the corridor of memory for a paradise far from of the decay and degeneration of the contemporary world. Both thematically and structurally this poem can claim to be the representative modern poem.

Modernism  involves a deliberate and radical break with the traditional bases of western culture. The traditional structures of society held by religion, morality and conventional values are being questioned in modern literature. Especially after the First World War man's faith in traditional society and institutions was totally jolted. T. S. Eliot has portrayed in his poems 'the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history'. Dylan Thomas has not been openly critical of his age. However, his poems convey the central features of the new type of poetry. Even in his treatment- of religion Dylan has brought out new ideas. For example, in the picture of childhood we find the religious connotation in the following lines: And the Sabbath rang slowly In the pebbles of the holy streams.

When Sunday came the boy heard the ringing of the church bells which mixed with the sound of the water flowed over the pebbles of the streams. The combination of church bells and streams imply that the divine glory mingled with the innocent joys of childhood made the childhood holier. This touch of religion is more pagan than Christian. Here we notice his attempt to create personal myths out of the old religious terms. Treatment of faith in this manner is an element of modernism.

Dylan Thomas is modern because of his poetic technique. In his 'Fern Hill' he has experimented with different forms, words and images.He gives newness to the much used phrases as in 'below a time", "happy as the grass was green' or 'all the sun long'. In the same way he gives new shape to the stanzas challenging all traditional stanza forms. In "Fem Hill" the stanzas have the shape of flying birds that imitates the flying imagination of the boy. All these are examples of experimentalism which is another feature of modernism.

Apparent obscurity is another feature of modern poetry. In fact, modern poems have so many levels of meanings that sometimes they appear almost incomprehensible. "Fern Hill" also seems obscure because of the elements of surrealism and personal fantasy. Here owls, Thomas gives a surrealistic description of child's fantasies which are unchained by the values of adulthood. The boy's fantasies about nights, night jars and horses presented in a way that seems obscure This is because Thomas takes his style near to the thinking of a child. Things exist only for 'him' and when he is unconscious they do not exist at all. Consequently, it has become obscure, one of the main features of modernism.

Still another feature of modernism is expressionism that we find in "Fern Hill". Expressionism is a movement or tendency that strives to express subjective feelings and emotions rather than to depict reality or nature objectively. In this poem Dylan Thomas has tried to present an emotional experience in its most compelling form. He is not concerned with reality as it appears but with its inner nature and with the emotions dormant in it. To achieve these ends, the childhood in "Fern Hill" is abundantly exaggerated, magnified, or otherwise altered in order to stress the emotional experience in its most intense and concentrated form. In this poem in true expressionistic manner the poet has brought out the uncommon vigour, energy, warmth and vitality of childhood,

As a modern poet Dylan Thomas has combined most of the basic features of modernism. In the 'Fern Hill' we find his finest craftsmanship in the blending of expressionism, experimental images. surrealism, creation of personal myths and unconventional word choice These modern elements have perfected his magic of poetic skill in the "Fern Hill".

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Ted Hughes had been obsessed with animals from early years. Many of his famous poems are based on animals. "The Jaguar", "Pike", "The Horses", "The Bull Moses", "An Otter", "Thrushes" and "Crow" are a few of many of his poems dealing with animals. The poem, "Pike" is an excellent example of Hughes' gift for imagining and describing nature at her most violent and predatory shape. It seeks the root of primitive energy, which is violent, irrational and deadly. Hughes in this poem recognises the primordial violent energy that defies and threatens all kinds of subordination to rational consciousness. Here lies human interest in the poem. So, "Pike" is a fine poem representing Hughes' pre-occupation with animals, his recognition of the violent primitive energy and his art of relating an animal with the primordial natural force in man.The poet suggests the violent and deadly nature of the pike in the beginning of the poem. It opens with an objective detail of the fish:

Pike, three inches long, perfect, Pike in all parts, green tigering the gold.Killers from the egg: The malevolent aged grin.They dance...

The words "tigering", "Killers" "malevolent" and "grin" imply that the dance is a macabre celebration of timeless instinctive destructiveness. The first four stanzas present the primitive horror in the subject-creature, the pike, through a series of evocative noun phrases. The I-speaker appears in the fifth stanza and reinforces the violence and horror in the pike through three brief anecdotes.

The first reference is to three pikes kept in an aquarium. The strongest of them ate up the other two. The second reference is to "Two, six pounds each", which killed each other in the willow-herb. The third is a reference to the pikes of giant size living in an old pond. These pikes are the embodiment of the mysterious foreboding inherent in nature. The speaker's experiences from these three incidents not only reaffirm the horror of the killer-fish but also gradually intensify the violence and mystery in the heart of man and nature.

So, the speaker in "Pike" recognises the inseparable primitive energy in animals. He becomes aware that the primitive violence is the evil "otherness", the animality in man.

Explain that "Pike" deals with primitive energy

Green Land | June 20, 2021 | 0 comments

Ted Hughes had been obsessed with animals from early years. Many of his famous poems are based on animals. "The Jaguar", "Pike", "The Horses", "The Bull Moses", "An Otter", "Thrushes" and "Crow" are a few of many of his poems dealing with animals. The poem, "Pike" is an excellent example of Hughes' gift for imagining and describing nature at her most violent and predatory shape. It seeks the root of primitive energy, which is violent, irrational and deadly. Hughes in this poem recognises the primordial violent energy that defies and threatens all kinds of subordination to rational consciousness. Here lies human interest in the poem. So, "Pike" is a fine poem representing Hughes' pre-occupation with animals, his recognition of the violent primitive energy and his art of relating an animal with the primordial natural force in man.The poet suggests the violent and deadly nature of the pike in the beginning of the poem. It opens with an objective detail of the fish:

Pike, three inches long, perfect, Pike in all parts, green tigering the gold.Killers from the egg: The malevolent aged grin.They dance...

The words "tigering", "Killers" "malevolent" and "grin" imply that the dance is a macabre celebration of timeless instinctive destructiveness. The first four stanzas present the primitive horror in the subject-creature, the pike, through a series of evocative noun phrases. The I-speaker appears in the fifth stanza and reinforces the violence and horror in the pike through three brief anecdotes.

The first reference is to three pikes kept in an aquarium. The strongest of them ate up the other two. The second reference is to "Two, six pounds each", which killed each other in the willow-herb. The third is a reference to the pikes of giant size living in an old pond. These pikes are the embodiment of the mysterious foreboding inherent in nature. The speaker's experiences from these three incidents not only reaffirm the horror of the killer-fish but also gradually intensify the violence and mystery in the heart of man and nature.

So, the speaker in "Pike" recognises the inseparable primitive energy in animals. He becomes aware that the primitive violence is the evil "otherness", the animality in man.

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Ted Hughes had so been obsessed with animals that people humorously called him a "Zoo Laureate". Indeed many of his famous poems are based on animals. "The Jaguar", "Pike", "The Horses"," Bull Moses", "An Otter", "Thrushes" and "Crow" are a few of many of his poems dealing with animals. However, though his primary subjects are animals, his main focus is on man. He believed that the primitive energy in man was on the verge of extinction because of the continuous domination of rational consciousness. The poem, "Pike" is an excellent example of Hughes' gift for imagining and describing nature at her most violent and predatory shape. It seeks the root of primitive energy, which is violent, irrational and deadly. Hughes in this poem recognizes the primordial violent energy that defies and threatens all kinds of subordination to rational consciousness. Here lies human interest in the poem. So, "Pike" is a fine poem representing Hughes' pre-occupation with animals, his recognition of the violent primitive energy and his art of relating an animal with the primordial natural force in man.

The poet suggests the violent and deadly nature of the pike in the beginning of the poem. It opens with an objective detail of the fish:

Pike, three inches long, perfect,Pike in all parts, green tigering the gold.Killers from the egg: The malevolent aged grin.They dance...

The words "tigering", "Killers" "malevolent" and "grin" imply that the dance is a macabre celebration of timeless instinctive destructiveness. The first four stanzas present the primitive horror in the subject-creature, the pike, through a series of evocative noun phrases. The speaker appears in the fifth stanza and reinforces the violence and horror in the pike through three brief anecdotes.

The first reference is to three pikes kept in an aquarium. The strongest of them ate up the other two. The second reference is to "Two, six pounds each", which killed each other in the willow-herb. The third is a reference to the pikes of giant size living in an old pond. These pikes are the embodiment of the mysterious foreboding inherent in nature. The first person speaker's experiences from these three incidents not only reaffirm the horror of the killer-fish but also gradually intensify the violence and mystery in the heart of man and nature.

So, "Pike" has very powerful human resonance. In the last four stanzas, the speaker recognises the inexplicable impending horror. He becomes aware that the primitive violence is an inseparable part of human existence. This violence is the evil "otherness", the animality in man. The poem suggests that in our cosy corner of civilisation, with its quiet, domestic surface, there survive primitive forces, the merciless cannibalism.

Ted Hughes used animals in his poems not for the sake of animals but for human beings'. Discuss.

Green Land | June 20, 2021 | 0 comments

Ted Hughes had so been obsessed with animals that people humorously called him a "Zoo Laureate". Indeed many of his famous poems are based on animals. "The Jaguar", "Pike", "The Horses"," Bull Moses", "An Otter", "Thrushes" and "Crow" are a few of many of his poems dealing with animals. However, though his primary subjects are animals, his main focus is on man. He believed that the primitive energy in man was on the verge of extinction because of the continuous domination of rational consciousness. The poem, "Pike" is an excellent example of Hughes' gift for imagining and describing nature at her most violent and predatory shape. It seeks the root of primitive energy, which is violent, irrational and deadly. Hughes in this poem recognizes the primordial violent energy that defies and threatens all kinds of subordination to rational consciousness. Here lies human interest in the poem. So, "Pike" is a fine poem representing Hughes' pre-occupation with animals, his recognition of the violent primitive energy and his art of relating an animal with the primordial natural force in man.

The poet suggests the violent and deadly nature of the pike in the beginning of the poem. It opens with an objective detail of the fish:

Pike, three inches long, perfect,Pike in all parts, green tigering the gold.Killers from the egg: The malevolent aged grin.They dance...

The words "tigering", "Killers" "malevolent" and "grin" imply that the dance is a macabre celebration of timeless instinctive destructiveness. The first four stanzas present the primitive horror in the subject-creature, the pike, through a series of evocative noun phrases. The speaker appears in the fifth stanza and reinforces the violence and horror in the pike through three brief anecdotes.

The first reference is to three pikes kept in an aquarium. The strongest of them ate up the other two. The second reference is to "Two, six pounds each", which killed each other in the willow-herb. The third is a reference to the pikes of giant size living in an old pond. These pikes are the embodiment of the mysterious foreboding inherent in nature. The first person speaker's experiences from these three incidents not only reaffirm the horror of the killer-fish but also gradually intensify the violence and mystery in the heart of man and nature.

So, "Pike" has very powerful human resonance. In the last four stanzas, the speaker recognises the inexplicable impending horror. He becomes aware that the primitive violence is an inseparable part of human existence. This violence is the evil "otherness", the animality in man. The poem suggests that in our cosy corner of civilisation, with its quiet, domestic surface, there survive primitive forces, the merciless cannibalism.

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Ted Hughes is outstanding in creating images in his poems most of which are written on animals. The poem 'Pike' produces a lot of imagery in our mind's eyes very vividly. In almost every line of the poem there is some kind of image. Side by side with such images the poet describes the inherent cruelty in the pike's nature.

The opening lines of the poem provides a graphic picture of some pikes-their sizes 'three inches long', their colour 'green tiggering the gold, and the teeth the malevolent aged grin'.

We find the vivid images of the pike when the poet gives the description of the various parts of its body and its style of movement. The jaws of the pike are 'hooked clamp and fangs' the gills 'kneading quietly and the pectorals'. We find the image of its swollen belly when the poet describes 'With a sag belly and the grin it was born with. We find the picture of willow herb among which the two big pikes lie dead. More minute image of the dead pike is found when the poet says:

One jammed past its gills down the other's gullet: The outside eye stared as a vice locks The same iron in this eye Though its film shrank in death.

Again, the word picture is vivid when the poet says the hair frozen on my head and the most vivid in the last two lines:

Darkness beneath night's darkness had freed, That rose slowly towards me, watching.

Ted Hughes has used imagery to convey the intended meanings. The images have been very carefully chosen to suggest the destructive instinct of the pike. Through the images the poet has tried to convey the theme of horror and violence. The poet has used the colour imagery such as 'green' 'gold' 'emarald' 'silhouette' 'amber' and 'darkness to suggest the dauntless sanguinary nature of the pike. Similarly, the word 'grin' has been repeatedly used to imply its killing nature and the violence involved in it. So the imagery used in the poem has very effectively been used to contribute to the theme of violence, danger and death caused by the pike and that are commonly visible in natural world

Comment on the imagery in Ted Hughes' poem "Pike"

Green Land | June 19, 2021 | 0 comments

Ted Hughes is outstanding in creating images in his poems most of which are written on animals. The poem 'Pike' produces a lot of imagery in our mind's eyes very vividly. In almost every line of the poem there is some kind of image. Side by side with such images the poet describes the inherent cruelty in the pike's nature.

The opening lines of the poem provides a graphic picture of some pikes-their sizes 'three inches long', their colour 'green tiggering the gold, and the teeth the malevolent aged grin'.

We find the vivid images of the pike when the poet gives the description of the various parts of its body and its style of movement. The jaws of the pike are 'hooked clamp and fangs' the gills 'kneading quietly and the pectorals'. We find the image of its swollen belly when the poet describes 'With a sag belly and the grin it was born with. We find the picture of willow herb among which the two big pikes lie dead. More minute image of the dead pike is found when the poet says:

One jammed past its gills down the other's gullet: The outside eye stared as a vice locks The same iron in this eye Though its film shrank in death.

Again, the word picture is vivid when the poet says the hair frozen on my head and the most vivid in the last two lines:

Darkness beneath night's darkness had freed, That rose slowly towards me, watching.

Ted Hughes has used imagery to convey the intended meanings. The images have been very carefully chosen to suggest the destructive instinct of the pike. Through the images the poet has tried to convey the theme of horror and violence. The poet has used the colour imagery such as 'green' 'gold' 'emarald' 'silhouette' 'amber' and 'darkness to suggest the dauntless sanguinary nature of the pike. Similarly, the word 'grin' has been repeatedly used to imply its killing nature and the violence involved in it. So the imagery used in the poem has very effectively been used to contribute to the theme of violence, danger and death caused by the pike and that are commonly visible in natural world

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Ozymandias is the Greek name for Rameses II. He was a very powerful monarch who ruled Egypt in the 13th century B. C. Rameses II had several by-names. Vasimare was one of them. The name Ozymandias has been derived from Vasimare. The name Ozymandias has attained a symbolic dimension in this poem. Shelley has sketched Ozymandias as a symbol of futile power that ironically fails the test of time.

The speaker of this sonnet tells that he met a traveller who returned from an ancient country. The traveller saw a broken statue in the desert. The statue's two legs stood on the pedestal. The body was not upon the two legs. Near them was lying the shattered face of the statue. There were frown, sneer and expression of the cruel authority in the face. It seemed that the person who made the statue could understand the king's character well and took every care to reflect it on stone. Though the sculptor and the king died long back, the broken statue still reflects the pride and cruelty of the king. The small platform on which the legs stood bore an inscription. It says:

"My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"

In that vast desert there was nothing except that broken statue, the sign of the ruined power. With the passage of time this symbol of auto cratic authority turned into a huge heap of ruins, lying pitifully in a lonely vast desert. The first part of the poem introduces the subject and the last part concludes it with a reflection on the universal truth that hu man power is not eternal.

The sonnet suggests Shelley's dislike for monarchs. Though Shelley does not say here anything directly against the king, his disgust for power mongers has obviously been suggested in it. He presents Ozymandias as a symbol of the universal truth that human vanity for power is meaningless. It is a glaring irony that Ozymandias, the king of kings, is gone to oblivion.

Discuss the theme of the poem Ozymandias

Green Land | June 17, 2021 | 0 comments

Ozymandias is the Greek name for Rameses II. He was a very powerful monarch who ruled Egypt in the 13th century B. C. Rameses II had several by-names. Vasimare was one of them. The name Ozymandias has been derived from Vasimare. The name Ozymandias has attained a symbolic dimension in this poem. Shelley has sketched Ozymandias as a symbol of futile power that ironically fails the test of time.

The speaker of this sonnet tells that he met a traveller who returned from an ancient country. The traveller saw a broken statue in the desert. The statue's two legs stood on the pedestal. The body was not upon the two legs. Near them was lying the shattered face of the statue. There were frown, sneer and expression of the cruel authority in the face. It seemed that the person who made the statue could understand the king's character well and took every care to reflect it on stone. Though the sculptor and the king died long back, the broken statue still reflects the pride and cruelty of the king. The small platform on which the legs stood bore an inscription. It says:

"My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"

In that vast desert there was nothing except that broken statue, the sign of the ruined power. With the passage of time this symbol of auto cratic authority turned into a huge heap of ruins, lying pitifully in a lonely vast desert. The first part of the poem introduces the subject and the last part concludes it with a reflection on the universal truth that hu man power is not eternal.

The sonnet suggests Shelley's dislike for monarchs. Though Shelley does not say here anything directly against the king, his disgust for power mongers has obviously been suggested in it. He presents Ozymandias as a symbol of the universal truth that human vanity for power is meaningless. It is a glaring irony that Ozymandias, the king of kings, is gone to oblivion.

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"Ozymandias" is a unique sonnet composed by Percy Bysshe Shelley, a revolutionary poet of the Romantic period. The poem is about the futility of human achievements. It mocks at human pride in power and pelf. 

The poem is a short lyric of fourteen lines. It has the form of a son net. However, unlike a sonnet, it has three narrators: the I-speaker, the traveller and the king. The observations of these narrators have been accommodated to the sonnet form. In the octave or first eight lines, the speaker introduces the traveller who narrates the broken statue, its sur rounding and the impression reflected by the shattered face of it. In the sestet or in the last six lines, the traveller quotes the inscription on the pedestal. The inscription says that the statue is of Ozymandias who was the king of kings. He was more powerful than other kings were, and so, he was proud of his power. But with the passage of time this symbol of auto cratic authority turned into a huge heap of ruins lying pitifully in a lonely vast desert. This part ends with a comment on the meaninglessness of human power. The octave, thus, introduces the subject and the sestet concludes it with a comment on the futility of power on earth.

This sonnet differs from other sonnets in its rhyme scheme. It has an unusual rhyme scheme: ababa cdc ede fef. It is neither a Petrarchan nor a Spenserian sonnet; nor it is a Shakespearean sonnet. It seems that the poet has intentionally used an unusual rhyme scheme to match the hard reality about power and its futility. The smooth going Petrarchan or Shakespearean rhyme scheme would not match the high sounding boast, the ups and downs of a power-blinded king and the terrible horror hid den in the pride of power.The diction of this sonnet has also been chosen to suit the subject of the poem. The poem lacks the lyricism natural to Shelley. Shelley is a great lyricist; his other poems are marked with felicity of diction, easeful movements of the verses. But in this poem, there are hard-sounding words, which slow down the movement and at times, create halting effect. For example, "trunk less", "shattered", "sculptor", "Pedestal", "Ozymandias" and so on are hard sounding words which hinder the smooth running of the verse lines. These words, however, reflect the ups and downs of autocratic power.

"Ozymandias" is, therefore, an exquisite sonnet. It deals with the truth that human pride in worldly achievement is very temporary. Shelley's use of an exceptional rhyme scheme and a matching diction sug gest the irony of power on earth. Shelley's presentation of the hard truth implies his dislike for the despotic rulers.

Ozymandias as a sonnet

Green Land | June 17, 2021 | 0 comments

"Ozymandias" is a unique sonnet composed by Percy Bysshe Shelley, a revolutionary poet of the Romantic period. The poem is about the futility of human achievements. It mocks at human pride in power and pelf. 

The poem is a short lyric of fourteen lines. It has the form of a son net. However, unlike a sonnet, it has three narrators: the I-speaker, the traveller and the king. The observations of these narrators have been accommodated to the sonnet form. In the octave or first eight lines, the speaker introduces the traveller who narrates the broken statue, its sur rounding and the impression reflected by the shattered face of it. In the sestet or in the last six lines, the traveller quotes the inscription on the pedestal. The inscription says that the statue is of Ozymandias who was the king of kings. He was more powerful than other kings were, and so, he was proud of his power. But with the passage of time this symbol of auto cratic authority turned into a huge heap of ruins lying pitifully in a lonely vast desert. This part ends with a comment on the meaninglessness of human power. The octave, thus, introduces the subject and the sestet concludes it with a comment on the futility of power on earth.

This sonnet differs from other sonnets in its rhyme scheme. It has an unusual rhyme scheme: ababa cdc ede fef. It is neither a Petrarchan nor a Spenserian sonnet; nor it is a Shakespearean sonnet. It seems that the poet has intentionally used an unusual rhyme scheme to match the hard reality about power and its futility. The smooth going Petrarchan or Shakespearean rhyme scheme would not match the high sounding boast, the ups and downs of a power-blinded king and the terrible horror hid den in the pride of power.The diction of this sonnet has also been chosen to suit the subject of the poem. The poem lacks the lyricism natural to Shelley. Shelley is a great lyricist; his other poems are marked with felicity of diction, easeful movements of the verses. But in this poem, there are hard-sounding words, which slow down the movement and at times, create halting effect. For example, "trunk less", "shattered", "sculptor", "Pedestal", "Ozymandias" and so on are hard sounding words which hinder the smooth running of the verse lines. These words, however, reflect the ups and downs of autocratic power.

"Ozymandias" is, therefore, an exquisite sonnet. It deals with the truth that human pride in worldly achievement is very temporary. Shelley's use of an exceptional rhyme scheme and a matching diction sug gest the irony of power on earth. Shelley's presentation of the hard truth implies his dislike for the despotic rulers.

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English literature is found remarkably affected by the new political trend. The national literary inspiration of the Elizabethan age is found replaced by the literary inspiration from the continent, particularly from France and Rome. In fact, English literature, after the Restoration, marks a clear deviation from the literary ideal of the Elizabethans and the Puritans

The Restoration introduced a change in the political state of England and secured release from Puritan austerity. The new monarch and his supporters came from France and they had demonstrated two specific trends attachment to French culture and repulsion to Puritanism.

New literature, introduced by the Restoration, has its clear manifestation in poetry. Restoration poetical literature has an altogether different approach from Elizabethan. It has nothing of the impulsivities of the Renaissance. On the other hand, there is a growing dimension of intellectualism in it. There is a distinct turn to classicism. An emphasis on classical order, control and fitness is dominantly distinct in Restoration poetry. Elizabethan lyricism passes away to make room for satire. The satiric spirit is, in fact, found dominant in the poetical literature of the Restoration.

The mark of this new poetical literature, dominated by satire, is perceived first in Hudibras, a work by Samuel Butler. This is actually the first typical work of the Restoration to open the new literary era Published in three parts, it is actually a sharp revolt against Puritanism and won immediate popularity. The author's model is Cervantes's Don Quixote. Through an exhibition of romance and absurdity, he makes open fun of Puritan excesses. The poem remains valuable, as a satirical comedy. This proves to be a source of inspiration for subsequent satirical works, including Swift's A Tale of a Tub.

Satire is found to be the literary fashion of the age. Even the survivors of the Republican age, like Andrew Marvell, noted for excellent lyricism, are found to have recourse to satirical writings. Marvell's later poems are satires in verse in which religious intolerance, autocratic tendencies, the lack of patriotism, and the licence of the new order are delightfully and willingly scoffed at. 

The next name in satirical literature is John Oldham who is found to follow scrupulously the classical authors, like Juvenal, in his satiric writings - Satires against the Jesuits and The Satire against Virtue. 

The lively flashes of satire are tasted in the verses of a group of poets, known as the court poets. Their approach is satiric, but there is much of chivalry as well as obscenity in the works of such court poets. John Wilmont, Earl of Rochester, is noted for his The Session of the Poets and Satire against Mankind. Both the works are full of sarcastic insolence and ironic pessimism.

Sir Charles Sadley, John Sheffield, Shadwell, and several others are the minor satirical poets of the age. Their poetical works, of course, have little worth to deserve recognition and commendation. 

The master of the poetical literature of the age, however, is John Dryden. He characterises the whole literary age which is called after his name. He is distinctly the greatest poet of his age. The perfection of the new poetic style, that is satire, is found fully achieved Dryden. 

Dryden's poetical genius is mainly satiric. He stands out as the greatest force as well as influence in English satirical literature. His celebrated works include Absalom and Achitophel in two parts, Mac Flecknoe, Religio Laici and The Hind and the Panther. He is also noted for his translation of the Verses of Persuis and the Satires of Juvenal as also for the translations of Virgil, Horace, Ovid and Homer. 

In Dryden is seen the great beginning of English satirical literature. This is found to have its wide expansion and range in the hands of Swift and Pope in the next century.

Write a short note on Restoration poetry?

Green Land | June 15, 2021 | 0 comments

English literature is found remarkably affected by the new political trend. The national literary inspiration of the Elizabethan age is found replaced by the literary inspiration from the continent, particularly from France and Rome. In fact, English literature, after the Restoration, marks a clear deviation from the literary ideal of the Elizabethans and the Puritans

The Restoration introduced a change in the political state of England and secured release from Puritan austerity. The new monarch and his supporters came from France and they had demonstrated two specific trends attachment to French culture and repulsion to Puritanism.

New literature, introduced by the Restoration, has its clear manifestation in poetry. Restoration poetical literature has an altogether different approach from Elizabethan. It has nothing of the impulsivities of the Renaissance. On the other hand, there is a growing dimension of intellectualism in it. There is a distinct turn to classicism. An emphasis on classical order, control and fitness is dominantly distinct in Restoration poetry. Elizabethan lyricism passes away to make room for satire. The satiric spirit is, in fact, found dominant in the poetical literature of the Restoration.

The mark of this new poetical literature, dominated by satire, is perceived first in Hudibras, a work by Samuel Butler. This is actually the first typical work of the Restoration to open the new literary era Published in three parts, it is actually a sharp revolt against Puritanism and won immediate popularity. The author's model is Cervantes's Don Quixote. Through an exhibition of romance and absurdity, he makes open fun of Puritan excesses. The poem remains valuable, as a satirical comedy. This proves to be a source of inspiration for subsequent satirical works, including Swift's A Tale of a Tub.

Satire is found to be the literary fashion of the age. Even the survivors of the Republican age, like Andrew Marvell, noted for excellent lyricism, are found to have recourse to satirical writings. Marvell's later poems are satires in verse in which religious intolerance, autocratic tendencies, the lack of patriotism, and the licence of the new order are delightfully and willingly scoffed at. 

The next name in satirical literature is John Oldham who is found to follow scrupulously the classical authors, like Juvenal, in his satiric writings - Satires against the Jesuits and The Satire against Virtue. 

The lively flashes of satire are tasted in the verses of a group of poets, known as the court poets. Their approach is satiric, but there is much of chivalry as well as obscenity in the works of such court poets. John Wilmont, Earl of Rochester, is noted for his The Session of the Poets and Satire against Mankind. Both the works are full of sarcastic insolence and ironic pessimism.

Sir Charles Sadley, John Sheffield, Shadwell, and several others are the minor satirical poets of the age. Their poetical works, of course, have little worth to deserve recognition and commendation. 

The master of the poetical literature of the age, however, is John Dryden. He characterises the whole literary age which is called after his name. He is distinctly the greatest poet of his age. The perfection of the new poetic style, that is satire, is found fully achieved Dryden. 

Dryden's poetical genius is mainly satiric. He stands out as the greatest force as well as influence in English satirical literature. His celebrated works include Absalom and Achitophel in two parts, Mac Flecknoe, Religio Laici and The Hind and the Panther. He is also noted for his translation of the Verses of Persuis and the Satires of Juvenal as also for the translations of Virgil, Horace, Ovid and Homer. 

In Dryden is seen the great beginning of English satirical literature. This is found to have its wide expansion and range in the hands of Swift and Pope in the next century.

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The monarchial power was restored to the british throne in 1660 that was restoration.

The restoration of monarchy in 1660 was a decisive event.it had a tremendous impact on English life and literature. In fact,the tow ages -the puritan and the restoration - utterly contradictory. To pass from one to another was to experience a heavy shock. The Puritan regime had too many rigours and restraints. Its severity repressed a good many characteristic national pleasures, including the drama in which the English genius had expressed itself so magnificently in the age of the great Elizabethans. In such a context, the reaction against Puritan manners and morals was inevitable. The popular welcome given to Charles on his return was a clear indication of the craving of the general people for the restoration of the monarchist order. The Restoration brought about a release - a sort of well-timed relief from the severity of the Puritans. But, released from that restraint, the English society rather lost itself in excesses and licenses. In place of the stricture of manners and morals and the reverence for an orderly way of living, there came into existence a moral looseness, a taste for vulgarity and the corruption of social manners and formalities. The King, himself an indolent sensualist, encouraged an atmosphere of hedonism and moral looseness. His companions, who had returned with him from their exile in France, brought with them French wit and French gallantry and liveliness. They indulged in amoral wit and sophisticated hedonism, and that was reflected conspicuously on the Restoration comedy.

The English society, after the Restoration, was certainly diseased. It suffered from the fever of indecency, immorality and licence, which rather affected national life from political, social and even ecclesiastical angles. In such a feverish state, the national spirit could not be fully active and alive, and the dominant influence on the same me easily from abroad - from France. The King had lived previously be fully France, and the supporters of royalty had to take shelter there during the Puritan rule. When the Restoration brought back the English King from France, he brought, along with himself, his followers and friends, who had been in France with him. Those people found themselves rather cut off from the previous flow of national life. As such they got themselves more imbued with French ideals and manners in social practices as well as literary tastes and expressions.

Moreover, the king, who had been brought back to power by the Restoration, was not at all an inspired leader. He indulged in corrupt practices and vices in private life. He had no redeeming sense of patriotism or responsibility in his public activities. He was fond of a lewd life and gave indulgences to the fellows of his habits. He was ready to spend anything for his own cheap material pleasures.

Such a defile influence and a corrupt King could not surely prove contributive to the growth of the national spirit of England. Both life and literature were naturally affected in such a state. Yet, in general, There was no degeneration in English life and literature. Of course compared with the time of the great Elizabethans, some decay might be well perceived. In fact, the spirit of English life and literature was found preserved by several factors that reacted in the other direction. 

In the first place, despite the moral looseness of the royal court, the English people in general retained their ardour for virtue and morality. Puritanism had a definite bearing on the moral aspects of the common English people, and that continued even after the great political change. 

In the second place, the King, despite his vulgarity and corrupt practices, could do little to affect the morality of the nation. He was almost a figurative head and nothing else. The political power actually belonged to the political parties in Parliament - the Whigs and the Tories.

In the third place, the growth of party spirit, despite its unfortunate tendencies, had a healthy impact on the national mind and intelligence. New tastes and tendencies in literature were sharpened by the same. 

In the fourth place, the French influence proved a blessing in disguise. A new tradition came to be set up, particularly in the domain of the drama, under the same influence.

In fact, the Restoration changed the character of the English people and even their tastes and manners, to some extent. But it could not revolutionize, in any unhappy manner, the essence of the English spirit or life. Amid its vulgarity and corruption, indecency and moral looseness, the age,  after the restoration, waited for a restoration to health and sanity which took place after the bloodless Revolution of 1688.     

That was how English life was affected, and shaped itself after the restoration of monarchy in 1660. English literature was, in no less way, affected by the new standard and the new values of life, brought into existence by the new regime. There was a sudden break from old standards and ideals. Between the age of the Elizabethans and the age after the Restoration, a great gap in literary objectives and patterns was clearly perceived. 

Shakespeare and his great associates were no more the source of inspiration for the writers who came after the Restoration. The influence of France, as noted already, was tremendous. The new writers renounced the old Elizabethan ideas and tried to inspirit English literature in the new French models. Literature, indeed, in England, after the Restoration, seemed to have been bred and nursed by French literary ideals and patterns. 

Of course, it was a great age for the French authors, particularly for the French dramatists. The French theatre was then illumined with the brilliant fireworks of wit and realism of Corneille, Racine and Moliere. It was under their influence that there was a new birth of comedy in England. The comedy of manners, as popularly called, was the greatest literary force of the Restoration, and its source of inspiration was certainly the French comedy of manners. The comedies of manners of Congreve, Wycherley, Vanbrugh, Farquhar and Dryden highly popular in the age were all inspired by that source. The comedy of the Restoration made a clear departure from the romantic comedy of Shakespeare and his predecessors and successors. These comedies were based on social manners, and here, to some extent, they bore the spirit of the Jonsonian comedy of humour. But, in the narrowness of their realism and in their excesses of vulgarity, such comedies were of a much lesser ethical quality than the Jonsonian comedy of humour. 

Another dramatic type of the Restoration was the heroic play, formulated mainly under the inspiration of the neo-classical authors of Europe- of Spain, France and Germany. The heroic play replaced the prominence of the tragedy in the Elizabethan world. Dryden was, again, the protagonist of heroic plays, and tried to imbue English literature with a classical spirit. 

Another literary expression of the age was the satire. The conflict between political parties - the Whigs and the Tories resulted in an Restoration Age interesting, but not always healthy, combat between different literary men, supporting antithetical political ideals. The genius of the English John Dryden. satire followed from the same, and the age was known after the name of the greatest protagonist of satirical literature Dryden's great satires - Absalom and Achitophel, in two parts, and Mac Flecknoe literature of the age. remained the wonderful inspirations for the satiric. 

The Restoration had also another important bearing on English literature by introducing more direct and simpler literary expressions. The extravagance of thought and language, loaded with Latin quotations and classical allusions, marked so conspicuously among Elizabethan and Puritan writers were no more. A sort of precise, almost mathematical, elegant literary style was developed.

One more aspect of that new literature was the adoption of the heroic couplet as the prevailing pattern of rhyme in poetry. Dryden showed his excellence in the use of heroic couplets. He was successfully followed, in the next age, perhaps with a greater adroitness, by Pope. 

Classicism was the objective of the Restoration authors who were actually opposed to Elizabethan romanticism. They did not possess the genius of the classical masters. Their attempts were more or less imitative. But they heralded a change, a turn to novelty, in the literary ideal from the good old order to a change which deemed as the sign of progress, though the new direction might not be all fine and fair.

What is Restoration? What socio-religious conditions of this period led to the creation of a new kind of English literature?

Green Land | June 15, 2021 | 0 comments

The monarchial power was restored to the british throne in 1660 that was restoration.

The restoration of monarchy in 1660 was a decisive event.it had a tremendous impact on English life and literature. In fact,the tow ages -the puritan and the restoration - utterly contradictory. To pass from one to another was to experience a heavy shock. The Puritan regime had too many rigours and restraints. Its severity repressed a good many characteristic national pleasures, including the drama in which the English genius had expressed itself so magnificently in the age of the great Elizabethans. In such a context, the reaction against Puritan manners and morals was inevitable. The popular welcome given to Charles on his return was a clear indication of the craving of the general people for the restoration of the monarchist order. The Restoration brought about a release - a sort of well-timed relief from the severity of the Puritans. But, released from that restraint, the English society rather lost itself in excesses and licenses. In place of the stricture of manners and morals and the reverence for an orderly way of living, there came into existence a moral looseness, a taste for vulgarity and the corruption of social manners and formalities. The King, himself an indolent sensualist, encouraged an atmosphere of hedonism and moral looseness. His companions, who had returned with him from their exile in France, brought with them French wit and French gallantry and liveliness. They indulged in amoral wit and sophisticated hedonism, and that was reflected conspicuously on the Restoration comedy.

The English society, after the Restoration, was certainly diseased. It suffered from the fever of indecency, immorality and licence, which rather affected national life from political, social and even ecclesiastical angles. In such a feverish state, the national spirit could not be fully active and alive, and the dominant influence on the same me easily from abroad - from France. The King had lived previously be fully France, and the supporters of royalty had to take shelter there during the Puritan rule. When the Restoration brought back the English King from France, he brought, along with himself, his followers and friends, who had been in France with him. Those people found themselves rather cut off from the previous flow of national life. As such they got themselves more imbued with French ideals and manners in social practices as well as literary tastes and expressions.

Moreover, the king, who had been brought back to power by the Restoration, was not at all an inspired leader. He indulged in corrupt practices and vices in private life. He had no redeeming sense of patriotism or responsibility in his public activities. He was fond of a lewd life and gave indulgences to the fellows of his habits. He was ready to spend anything for his own cheap material pleasures.

Such a defile influence and a corrupt King could not surely prove contributive to the growth of the national spirit of England. Both life and literature were naturally affected in such a state. Yet, in general, There was no degeneration in English life and literature. Of course compared with the time of the great Elizabethans, some decay might be well perceived. In fact, the spirit of English life and literature was found preserved by several factors that reacted in the other direction. 

In the first place, despite the moral looseness of the royal court, the English people in general retained their ardour for virtue and morality. Puritanism had a definite bearing on the moral aspects of the common English people, and that continued even after the great political change. 

In the second place, the King, despite his vulgarity and corrupt practices, could do little to affect the morality of the nation. He was almost a figurative head and nothing else. The political power actually belonged to the political parties in Parliament - the Whigs and the Tories.

In the third place, the growth of party spirit, despite its unfortunate tendencies, had a healthy impact on the national mind and intelligence. New tastes and tendencies in literature were sharpened by the same. 

In the fourth place, the French influence proved a blessing in disguise. A new tradition came to be set up, particularly in the domain of the drama, under the same influence.

In fact, the Restoration changed the character of the English people and even their tastes and manners, to some extent. But it could not revolutionize, in any unhappy manner, the essence of the English spirit or life. Amid its vulgarity and corruption, indecency and moral looseness, the age,  after the restoration, waited for a restoration to health and sanity which took place after the bloodless Revolution of 1688.     

That was how English life was affected, and shaped itself after the restoration of monarchy in 1660. English literature was, in no less way, affected by the new standard and the new values of life, brought into existence by the new regime. There was a sudden break from old standards and ideals. Between the age of the Elizabethans and the age after the Restoration, a great gap in literary objectives and patterns was clearly perceived. 

Shakespeare and his great associates were no more the source of inspiration for the writers who came after the Restoration. The influence of France, as noted already, was tremendous. The new writers renounced the old Elizabethan ideas and tried to inspirit English literature in the new French models. Literature, indeed, in England, after the Restoration, seemed to have been bred and nursed by French literary ideals and patterns. 

Of course, it was a great age for the French authors, particularly for the French dramatists. The French theatre was then illumined with the brilliant fireworks of wit and realism of Corneille, Racine and Moliere. It was under their influence that there was a new birth of comedy in England. The comedy of manners, as popularly called, was the greatest literary force of the Restoration, and its source of inspiration was certainly the French comedy of manners. The comedies of manners of Congreve, Wycherley, Vanbrugh, Farquhar and Dryden highly popular in the age were all inspired by that source. The comedy of the Restoration made a clear departure from the romantic comedy of Shakespeare and his predecessors and successors. These comedies were based on social manners, and here, to some extent, they bore the spirit of the Jonsonian comedy of humour. But, in the narrowness of their realism and in their excesses of vulgarity, such comedies were of a much lesser ethical quality than the Jonsonian comedy of humour. 

Another dramatic type of the Restoration was the heroic play, formulated mainly under the inspiration of the neo-classical authors of Europe- of Spain, France and Germany. The heroic play replaced the prominence of the tragedy in the Elizabethan world. Dryden was, again, the protagonist of heroic plays, and tried to imbue English literature with a classical spirit. 

Another literary expression of the age was the satire. The conflict between political parties - the Whigs and the Tories resulted in an Restoration Age interesting, but not always healthy, combat between different literary men, supporting antithetical political ideals. The genius of the English John Dryden. satire followed from the same, and the age was known after the name of the greatest protagonist of satirical literature Dryden's great satires - Absalom and Achitophel, in two parts, and Mac Flecknoe literature of the age. remained the wonderful inspirations for the satiric. 

The Restoration had also another important bearing on English literature by introducing more direct and simpler literary expressions. The extravagance of thought and language, loaded with Latin quotations and classical allusions, marked so conspicuously among Elizabethan and Puritan writers were no more. A sort of precise, almost mathematical, elegant literary style was developed.

One more aspect of that new literature was the adoption of the heroic couplet as the prevailing pattern of rhyme in poetry. Dryden showed his excellence in the use of heroic couplets. He was successfully followed, in the next age, perhaps with a greater adroitness, by Pope. 

Classicism was the objective of the Restoration authors who were actually opposed to Elizabethan romanticism. They did not possess the genius of the classical masters. Their attempts were more or less imitative. But they heralded a change, a turn to novelty, in the literary ideal from the good old order to a change which deemed as the sign of progress, though the new direction might not be all fine and fair.

readmore
 
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