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What is Language?  


Language is the principal method of Community used by human beings. Languages consist of spoken sound in spoken languages and written symbols that is used for the written languages. Language is the conventional speaking system through which we can communicate with others and express our ideas, feelings and information. Language is the most important aspect of our life cause it allows us to create cultural ties, friendship, relationships by spreading our thoughts and ideas.


Properties of language :


There are basically six properties of language that makes the human language different from the animals language. These properties are some kind of features which are unlikely to be found in the languages of other living creatures. Here, the properties are given below.


1. Displacement :


This properties allows us to communicate about those events that are currently absent from the environment ( like I did the work yesterday, what is your plan for this vacation or I will get the job in the next month). It allows us to make up story and think about the both the past and the future.


2. Productivity :


It resembles the infinity of unique words / sentences and the combination of word. It is linked to the fact that the potential number of utterances in human languages are infinite. 


3. Arbitrariness :


It basically presents that no naturela connection between a linguistic form and its meaning is exist. That means the words or symbols used to make the right perception about the objects are not inherently interconnected to those objects they symbolize. 


4. Discreteness :


This properly ensures that the sounds used in languages are meaningfully distinct and those sounds are considered our own with our distinct meaning. 


5. Duality :


At one stage of language we find two kinds of simultaneity of language, one is discrete sounds and another is discrete meanings. 


We can combine the letters l,a,k and e in two different ways : lake and leak. These two word means two different meanings even though they are comprised of the same four sounds. 


6. Cultural Transmission :


Language is learnt through culture with other speakers and not from parental genes.


Characteristics of Language :


There are basically 10 characteristics of language. Some of the are major characteristics and some of them are minor characteristics. Again some of them are relatable with the properties of language that mentioned before.


Here, the characteristics are given below:


1. Language is a social phenomenon :


Language should be considered as a social phenomenon considering It's uses, importance and It's unique value. Language exists in our human society and playing a big role of nursing and developing culture and establishing good relation between human beings. 


2. Language is the main means of human communication :


It is a universal acknowledgement that language is the main means of communication among human beings. Although, there are also some means of communication is exists among us like nods, winks, mathematical symbols, sirens, maps, codes, horns, etc. But all of these commutation system is too much limited to language. They are not as appropriate as language is.


3.Language is basically vocal:


Language is primarily made up of vocal sounds which is produced from the vocal cord, an articulatory organism of human body. Initially, it must have come out as sounds only and writing mustly come much later. During the life time of a human being, he/she must speaks much than he/she writes.


4. Language is unique, complex,creative and modifiable :


Language is a unique substance in the planet. There is no other talking species in the world without human being. Human being has their own way to communicate. Again, each language is unique in its own sense. Though, there are similarities among languages, each language has It's own particularities. Language is changing in each and every moments and new languages are begin created with times. The old English language is not same as the modern English is. So, language is also modifiable. 


5. Prolapse :


Man can talk about situations, stories, certainty without the presence of that situation & environment. Man can talk about the past or about the future. Language allows us to think on that way. We can talk in absence of someone with the mean of language. 


Beside these major characteristics, some minor minor characteristics are also given below :


6. Productivity :


Whatever we create is productivity. Speaking itself is also a type of productivity. We can talk about topics that are displaced or we can talk about the things that may be present or not, or talk about anything in past, present or future. We can make story that doesn’t exist.


7. Language is Social: 


Language is a set of conventional communicative symbols used by humans for communication in the society. In this sense, language is a possession of a social group, comprising an indispensable set of rules which permits its members to share thoughts to each other, to communicate with each other, to co-operate with each other; it is a social institution.Moreover,  Language exists in society; it is the means of nourishing and developing culture and establishing human relations.


8. Language is systematic: 


In spite of being symbolic, the symbols of language are arranged in specific systems. All languages have their individual & unique arrangement of plans. Each language is an arrangement of systems. 


9. Language is a symbolic system: 


Language is signified as a symbolic system. It consists of different types of symbol basing on sound for concepts, things, ideas, thoughts,  object etc. Language has specific  sounds and words according to their symbols.


The words in a language are not just patterns or images but symbols that has the meaning. The core value of a language sometimes funded on the true explanation of these symbols.


10. Language is non - instinctive and Conventional:


No language was made in a single day. Language is the result of advancement of culture and tradition. Every age transmits this tradition on to the following.


Like every single human organization or system, languages may also be changed and pass on, developed,modified  and extended. So, we can consider language as non-instinctive because naturally it is acquired and modified by us.

Characteristics of language

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