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The earlier half of Elizabeth's reign, also, though not lacking in literary effort produced no work of permanent importance. After the religious convulsions of half a century time was required for the development of the internal quiet and confidence from which a great literature could spring. At length, however, the hour grew ripe and there came the greatest outburst of creative energy in the whole history of English literature. Under Elizabeth's wise guidance the prosperity and enthusiasm of the nation had raised to the highest pitch and Lendon in particular was overflowing with vigorous life. A special stimulus of the most intense kind came from the struggle with Spain. After a generation of half-piratical depredations by the English sea dogs against the Spanish treasure fleets and the Spanish settlements in America, King Philip. exasperated beyond all patience and urged on by a bigot's zeal for the Catholic Church, began deliberately to prepare the Great Armada, which was to crush at one blow the insolence, the independence, and the religion of England. There followed several long years of breathless suspense; then in 1588 the Armada sailed and was utterly overwhelmed in one of the most complete disasters of the world's history. Thereupon the released energy of England broke out exultantly into still more impetuous achievement in almost every line of activity. The great literary period is taken by common consent to begin with the publication of Spenser's ‘Shepherd's Calendar’ in 1579, and to end in some sense at the death of Elizabeth in 1603, though in the drama, at least, it really continues many years longer. Several general characteristics - of Elizabethan literature and writers should be indicated at the outset. 

1. The period has the great variety of almost unlimited creative force; it includes works of many kinds in both verse and prose, and ranges in spirit from the loftiest Platonic idealism or the most delightful romance to the level of very repulsive realism. 

2. It was mainly dominated, however, by the spirit of romance. 

3. It was full also of the spirit of dramatic action, as befitted an age Whose restless enterprise was eagerly extending itself to every quarter of the globe. 

4. In style it often exhibits romantic luxuriance, which sometimes takes the form of elaborate affectations of which the favourite 'conceit' is only the most apparent. 

5. It was in part a period of experimentation, when the proper material and limits of literary forms were being determined, oftentimes by means of false starts and grandiose failures. In particular, many efforts were made to give prolonged poetical treatment to many subjects essentially prosaic, for example to systems of theological or scientific thought, or to the geography of al! England. 

6. It continued to be largely influenced by the literature of Italy, and to a less degree by those of France and Spain. 

7. The literary spirit was all-pervasive, and the authors were men (not yet women) of almost every class, from distinguished courtiers, like Ralegh and Sidney, to the company of hack writers, who starved in garrets and hung about the outskirts of the bustling taverns. 

The Elizabethan Period in England began with the crowning of Queen Elizabeth I in 1558 and ended with her death in 1603. It was part of the Tudor Period. The 45 years saw the emergence of England as a world power with international trade links around the world. The country developed the strongest naval force in Europe after its defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 and its ships circumnavigated the globe in voyages of exploration. It was a period strongly dominated by Queen Elizabeth I herself, a shrewd and talented diplomat who avoided wars and demanded total allegiance from her subjects. She encouraged commerce and brought stability to the nation. 

When she was queen, England and Wales were united but Scotland was a separate country. England was an agricultural based country with a population of about three million. Initially here was little money in the treasury but by the end of her reign the country was wealthy, much of this due to the piracy of privateers like Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh who raided foreign shipping for gold. One of Elizabeth's main internal problems was the constant clash between Catholics and Protestants and getting the Protestant Church of England firmly established in order to counter the authority and power of the Pope. Despite this and other problems like political intrigues and faction fighting, she successfully established a sense of nation in the people. although persecution of Catholics still continued. She became head of the Protestant Church of England, A cultural flowering during her reign - often called the Golden Age - saw the emergence of talented writers like William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Thomas Kyd, 

Thomas Nashe, and Edmund Spencer. Theatres, music, and poetry flourished, aS did art and architecture. For the upper classes life in Elizabethan England was graceful and sophisticated and heralded a New Age and new visions but for ordinary people it could be harsh. Criminal jaws were hard and whippings, pillorying and hangings were common for offenses which nowadays would be considered minor. Most people remained illiterate and life expectancy for the poor was short. 

Ironically, although England was led by a powerful and famous queen, women in England had few or no rights. Men dominated everything and Elizabeth made no moves for. English women's rights. However, as a ruler she dominated everyone with a cold efficiency and political cunning. Her sole concern seemed to be the total retention of her royal power which she achieved through the clever manipulation of men. Any challenge to her throne was severely punished, as with Queen Mary of Scots who she executed in 1587 after keeping her imprisoned for nearly 20 years. Mary's death was one of many executions during Elizabeth's reign. Born in 1533 Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn. Among her various bad points she was noted for a fearful temper. Her many talents included being fluent in English, French, Italian, Latin, and Greek and a writer of poetry. She never married and was sometimes referred to as the Virgin Queen. And she always refused to settle the matter of succession although there was no direct heir. Consequently, upon her death aged 70 in 1603, James, the son of rival Mary Queen of Scots, became King James I of England. Elizabeth's passing also saw the end of the Tudor line and the beginning of the Stuart Synasty.


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