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Learner strategies in vocabulary learning refer to the Strategies individuals follow to learn new words. There are many Strategies individual learners follow to learn new vocabulary. Researchers have tried to identify these based on the second language learning strategies described by Oxford. Schmitt (1997) defines the strategies in two ways: discovery strategies and consolidation strategies. Discovery strategies are techniques that are used to discover the learning processes of new words. Consolidation strategies, on the other hand, are strategies used to process or synthesize the new word once it has been identified. Based on these two definitions, Schmitt categorizes vocabulary learning strategies Into five groups. 

I) Determination strategies : these are individual learning strategies used to learn new words. Some learners prefer learning vocabulary from the contexts, and some prefer pre-reading strategies, such as semantic analysis and morphological clusters. Learners may use these strategies consciously or subconsciously. 

ii) Social strategies: these refer to the ways in which learners learn vocabulary through interaction with others. Some learners are very efficient in using social strategies. They learn new words faster than others because they are very good at identifying the use of new words in other peoples’ conversation. 

iii) Memory strategies : some learners link the new words to their background knowledge to understand and remember the words. They process the new words by associating these with their schemata. 

iv) Cognitive strategies: these involve learners in identifying new words and analyzing the meanings in relation to each other. These are the mental processes they use to synthesize the new words. For example, they will use prediction and inference when they encounter a word. They will also categorize the word into different meanings and will analyse which meaning is more suitable at the context. 

v) Metacognitive strategies: these strategies involve monitoring, and evaluating the process individuals are - following to learn new words. For example, learners monitor all the strategies they are using to check if the strategies are properly followed. Then, they evaluate which strategies work better, and master the most effective strategies to use in the future. : 

All the above strategies are helpful in learning new words. It depends on individuals’ learning style which strategy or 8 combination of strategies they will follow. Therefore, teachers have to introduce all the strategies to ESL learners  so that they can select the most effective ones for their own learning. 


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