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What is Virus?

Virus is a micro organism that is smaller than a bacterium germs grows in living cell.Virus typically contains a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material. Virus is capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells.


There are some characteristics of virus.

 

1.They are non living structure.


2.They are non cellular. 


3.They contains capside.


4.They has acid core containing DNA or RNA or both.


CORONA VIRUS:


Corona virus is a type of common virus that is named as Covid-19 basing on It's characteristics and It's circumvolution. 


#CO- is for Corona, 

#VI- is for virus and 

#D- stands for disease. 


There are seven types of human Corona Viruses that have been identified till now.


*MERS - CoV (the beta corona virus causes middle east respiratory syndrome)


*SARS - CoV (the beta corona virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome) are two of the examples.


2019 Novel Corona Virus (2019-nCoV) is the new corona virus outbreak that began in Wuhan,China.


It is said that most people will be infected with at least one type of corona virus in their lifetime. These types of virus spreads through personal contact. By coughing and sneezing, these virus can be spreaded by the air also.


VACCINE:


A vaccine stimulates ones immune system that helps to produce antibody that helps to protect certain diseases. Vaccine contains microbes that can be a dead version or weakened version.After getting vaccinated one can develop immunity to that specific disease without having to get the disease. So that, vaccines are such powerful medicine. 


There are three basic types of vaccines. 


1.Toxoid vaccines. 

2.Inactive vaccines. 

3.Live - attenuated vaccines.


Here, some types of vaccine forms are also given below:


*AVA and AVP :- Sub unit vaccine containing three antigens.


*Live attenuated vaccines :-Generally used as veterinary care.


*Polysaccharide :- Protein type.


*Inactivated viral vaccine. 


*Recombinant subunit vaccine. 


*Injection :- As activated or inactivated virus vaccine. 


*Nasal Spray.


*Polysaccharide Vaccine. 


*OPV :- Attenuated viral vaccine.


*Injectable and Oral.


*Toxoid Vaccine :- Toxic can be controverted into toxoid by formaldehyde. 


How is a vaccine created? 


Vaccines are made by taking a small amount of disease germ of virus or bacteria and weakening them so that they can't multiply the amount or can't  produce themselves. Vaccines does not let the germs to cause diseases because before that, our body can make a strong immune system against those germs.


Development of a new vaccine :


1. Exploratory Stage:


The exploratory stage consists of basic lab research and the identification of antigens which improves the body immune system. This stage takes 2-4 years generally to be completed.If the exploratory stage is seems to be promising, the test moves on to the next stage.


2. Pre-clinical Stage:

This is a stage of research that begins after the green signal of the exploratory stage. This is the stage in which the drug candidate maybe first tested in laboratory animals. 


3. Clinical Development :


There are five phases of clinical trials. 


*Phase 0: This is the first clinical trial done among people.In this trial a very small dose of vaccine is given to 10 - 15 people.


*Phase 1: Phase 1 trial is to test the drugs safety.In this phase,doctors aim to find out the best dose of new drug.In the phase 1 trial,the drug will be tested in a small group of patient of about 15 to 30.Doctor gives a very small dosages and increase the amount of dosages among the patients untill side effects become too severe.


*Phase 2: In the phase 2 trial,some new combinations of drug are tested among a larger amount of patient than the phase 1 trial.The new drug is rarely simillar to the current drug that is used.If the new drug shows promising work,it should be tested in the next trial.


*Phase 3: In this phase,the trial compares the new drug and the current drug and assess which drug works better.Side effects are monitored closely in this trial.This trial enrolls 150 to 1,000 patients.


*Phase 4: In this phase,the vaccine is tested in several thousands of people. This trial test the vaccines which gets approval. Doctors can learn more about the drugs throug this trial.


4. Regulatory Review & Approval:

In this stage,all the approval including licence, registration, marketing, price are confirmed by the authority or agency or department or states or the government of the country for the process of manufacturing. 


5. Quality Control :

In this process,a company or business ensures the product quality and the improvements of the product.


According to a survey, a vaccine costs 100 crore $ for these stages and only 13 vaccines get approval from FDA out of 100 vaccines. It's a big reason for what companies are afraid of creating vaccines. 


CORONA VACCINE 

Till now, more than 60 vaccines have been clinically tested and about 43 vaccines have passed the phase 1. And 20 of them passed the phase 2 clinical trial and 18 of them successfully passed the thired phase of clinical trial.Many countries are trying to make vaccine and are going through the process of clinical trial.


At present,6 vaccines got the approval from FDA for early and limited use.This six vaccines should be tested for any emergency situation. 


On the other hand, two vaccines recently got the approval from FDA for full and complete use.They are not tested yet.Among them, FDA approved the Modern's  vaccine for emergency use.

The matter of sorrow is that, the first ever vaccine which is tested after the approval from FDA is proved harmful for human being is abandoned after the test.


Here some of the pending vaccines which passed clinical trials are given below.


*Company name: BIONTECH

Vaccine name: BNT162b2

Efficiency : Almost 95%

Type: Injection 

Dose quantity : 2


*Company name:MODERNA

Vaccine name: mRNA-1273

Efficiency : 94.5%

Dose quantity : 2

Type: Injection 


*Company name: ZYDUS

Vaccine name : ZyCoV-D

Efficiency : not identified 

Dose quantity : 3

Type :Injection 


*Company name: TaKaRa

Name: AG0302-COVID19

Efficiency : Unknown 

Dose quantity :2

Type: Injection. 


Note:

As there is no vaccine identified safe and efficient till now, there's no surety of vaccine should be invented in recent time.Only our self precaution cane save us from this CORONA pandemic. Social distancing is the best solution to remain safe from this disease. 6 feet distancing should be maintained for our own sake. We should sanitize our hand after touching something and should wash our hand by soup for 20 seconds before eating anything. 


A survey says that, wearing mask can give us 80% safety from this disease. We all should wear mask and should follow all the health rules to remain safe from this epidemic. 


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