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"A Passage to India" is  one of the best novel in English Literature . 

The novel A passage to India open with a short description of Chandrapore and an overview of the surrounding countryside.Written by E.M. Forster. We first gain an impression of the town as filthy and nondescript from ground level. It is an uninteresting city situated on the banks of the Ganges . This river is not considered to be holy because there is no ghat for bathing . Inside the city one can find an egg shaped ground,  a hospital and unattractive temples. The railway line divides the European locality from the Indian locality. The Eurasians ( mixed stock born of the European and the Asians )live on the rise further up near the little civil station.  From this place,  the city of Chandrapore looks like a garden.  The Marabar hills are at twenty miles distance towards the south . The city appears to be a part of the natural world.  The description of the town shows that in India the strength of the natural world of earth and sky in the only thing certain -the rest is all illusory.

The small city of Chandrapore is like a mini India . It symbolizes the estranged relation between the ruling class (Britishers)and the subjects (Indians). The British rulers enjoy their life but their arrogance and contempt for the Indian.
E.M.Forster A passage to India

Theme of Friendship

Aziz -Fielding relationship in 'A Passage to India' is a complex study of human behaviour. It points to the difficulties that men of different races face in trying to understand one another. There are real differences of opinions between the two , but it is the much more subtle and pervasive differences of temperament and mutual misunderstanding,  common to persons of two different races that finally separate Dr.Aziz and Fielding .The fundamental differences of character and outlook between Aziz and Fielding rise to the surface after Aziz's arrest and release . Aziz is determined to take revenge upon Adela for ruining his career .Fielding , moved by pity for helpless Adela urges Aziz not to persist in his demand for compensation.  Aziz refuses and Fielding is distressed to find that Aziz's unforgiving and revengeful attitude is based on his sexual snobbery.  Aziz thinks that Fielding is pleading for Adela because he wants to marry her for her money,  and this idea leads him to break with Fielding on this issue.

When Aziz and Fielding meet each other again in the last section of the novel,  there is no joyous reunion between the two friends. During the festival of Sri Krishna's  birthday Aziz  happens to meet Ralph,  son of Mrs. Moore. At first aziz wants to take revenge on the helpless boy for what the British had done to him.But the memory of Mrs. Moore softened his mind and he also finds Ralph like his mother. So he warms towards the boy and in friendship takes him out on the river where the festivities are taking place . Meanwhile Fielding and his wife are also in another boat , having come to witness the Hindu ceremony of pushing a clay -model of Gokul, Krishna's birthplace , into the waters. Aziz and Fielding in boats are so absorbed in enjoying the ceremony that their boats collode with each other and there is total confusion . The boats capsize and Fielding , Ralph and Stella together are plunged in water and undergo a sort of purification , a sort of spiritual baptism. The holy water seemed to wash away all the suspicious,  hatred and pettiness . Aziz finds that not Adela but Stella is Fielding's wife.  The relationship between Aziz and Fielding becomes somewhat normal once again .The day before Fielding's departure,  Aziz accompanied his friend for a ride in the jungle of mau. They bring their horses nearer to embrace each other, but the horses swerve apart . This indicates that sub -human India is hostile to inter -racial friendship and therefore, their union by necessary is transitory.

To sum up, in the concluding chapter the writer makes it clear that friendship is possible only among equals.  As long as the Britishers were masters in India, there could be no lasting,  bond of friendship between the English and the Indians .


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